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About Buddhist Monks

Mãtikã 141. A person who respects Buddhism as a supporter in order to lead one’s way of life is called a Buddhaparisa (the four assemblies of Buddhists). There are 4 kinds of Buddhaparisã, as follows:
(1) Bhikkhuaṅgha (Buddhist monks) means those men who have attained 20
years of age and have entered the monkshood by Ñatticatutthakammavãcã Ordination among the community of Bhikkhuaṅgha, including Sãmanฺera (male novices).
(2) Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha (Buddhist nuns) means those women who have attained
20 years of age and have been Sikkhamãnã (female novices undergoing a probationary course of two years before receiving the higher ordination). They have been ordained by Ñatticatutthakammavãcã Ordination among the community of Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha, including women who are Sikkhamãnã and Sãmanฺerĩ (female novices).
(3) Upãsaka (laymen) means male householders who have taken refuge in
The Triple Gems or have devoted themselves to the Lord Buddha.
(4) Upãsikã (laywomen) means female householders who have taken refuge
in the Triple Gems or have devoted themselves to the Lord Buddha.

Mãtikã 142. The Lord Buddha praised the great disciples for their specialization
in various skills called Etadagga. There were 41 specialized disciples as follows:
(1) Aññãkonฺdฺañña was a Rattaññũ (an elder of long standing).
(2) Sarĩputta was a Bhikkhu of great wisdom.
(3) Mahãmoggallãna was a Bhikkhu of great supernatural powers.
(4) Mahãkassapa was a Bhikkhu of great Dhutaṅga (Austere Practices).
(5) Anuruddha was a great one with divine eyes.
(6) Bhattiya was born of an aristocratic family.
(7) Lakunฺtฺakabhattiya was a great one with a beautiful voice.
(8) Pinฺdฺolabhãradavãja was a great one who had powerful speech.
(9) Punฺnฺamantãnĩputta was a great sermon giver.
(10) Mahãkaccãyana was a great one who disclosed a summary.
(11) Cũlฺapanthaka was a great one with mind-made magical powers.
(12) Mahãpanthaka was a great one who attained insight meditation.
(13) Suphũti was great goodwill progress absorption and a great individual
deserving donations.
(14) Khadiravaniyarevata was a great Bhikkhu staying in the forest.
(15) Kaṅkhãrevata was pleased with Jhãna (absorption).
(16) Sonฺakolฺivisa was a Bhikkhu of the great effort.
(17) Sonฺakutikanฺnฺa was a great sermon giver with beautiful speech.
(18) Sĩvalĩ was a great Bhikkhu with the best of luck.
(19) Vakkali was a Bhikkhu of great faithfulness.
(20) Rãhula was a great one in gaining knowledge.
(21) Ratฺhapãla was a great one who was ordained with faithfulness.
(22) Kunฺdฺadhãna was a Bhikkhu of the first lucky draw.
(23) Vaṅgĩsa was a Bhikkhu of great wit.
(24) Upasena was a Bhikkhu who believed whole-heartedly.
(25) Dabbamallaputta was great at accommodations arrangement.
(26) Pilindavaccha was a great one who was beloved by the celestials.
(27) Bãhiyadãruciriya was one who attained enlightenment quickly.
(28) Kumãrakassapa was a great one who gave gorgeous Dhamma.
(29) Mahãkotฺatฺhiti was a great Bhikkhu with analytic insight.
(30) Ãnonda was a Bhikkhu who had great knowledge, consciousness,
moral precepts, effort, and he was a great supporter.
(31) Uruvelakassapa was a great one who had many followers.
(32) Kãludãyĩ was a great one who made his family believe whole-heartedly.
(33) Bakkula was a Bhikkhu who was rarely sick.
(34) Sobhita was a great one who remembered former existences.
(35) Upãli was a great strict disciplinarian.
(36) Nandaka was great at teaching Bhikkhunĩ (Buddhist nuns).
(37) Nanta was a great one at controlling the sense faculties (Indriya).
(38) Mahãkappina was great at teaching Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks).
(39) Sãgata was a great practitioner of the Fire Kasina (Tejo).
(40) Radha was a Bhikkhu of great clear wit.
(41) Mogharãja was a Bhikkhu in old gloomy yellow robes.

Mãtikã 143. Asĩtimahãsãvaka (the 80 great disciples) were the great Bhikkhu
who propagated Buddhism while the Lord Buddha was alive until he died (Parinibbãna). There were 80 great disciples, namely:

(1) Aññãkonฺdฺañña (2) Sãrĩputta
(3) Mahãmoggallãna (4) Mahãkassapa
(5) Anuruddha (6) Bhattiya
(7) Lakunฺtฺakabhattiya (8) Pinฺdฺolabhãradavãja
(9) Punฺnฺamantãnĩputta (10) Mahãkaccãyana
(11) Cũlฺapanthaka (12) Mahãpanthaka
(13) Subhũti (14) Khadiravaniyarevata
(15) Kaṅkhãrevata (16) Sonฺakolฺivisa
(17) Sonฺakutฺikanฺnฺa (18) Sĩvalĩ
(19) Vakkali (20) Rãhula
(21) Ratฺhpãla (22) Kunฺdฺadhãna
(23) Vaṅgĩsa (24) Upasena
(25) Dabbamallaputta (26) Pilindavaccha
(27) Bãhiyadãruciriya (28) Kumãrakassapa
(29) Mahãkotฺatฺhiti (30) Ãnonda
(31) Uruvelakassapa (32) Kãlฺudãyĩ
(33) Bakkula (34) Sobhita
(35) Upãlĩ (36) Nandaka
(37) Nanta (38) Mahãkappina
(39) Sãgata (40) Rãdha
(41) Mogharãja (42) Vappa
(43) Bhaddiya (44) Mahãnãma
(45) Assaji (46) Yasa
(47) Vimala (48) Subãhu
(49) Punฺnฺaji (50) Gavampati
(51) Nadĩkassapa (52) Gayãkassapa
(53) Ajita (54) Tissametteyya
(55) Punฺnฺaka (56) Mettagu
(57) Dhotaka (58) Upasĩva
(59) Nanda (60) Hemaka
(61) Todeyya (62) Kappa
(63) Jatukanฺnฺĩ (64) Bhadrãvudha
(65) Udaya (66) Posãla
(67) Piṅgiya (68) Bhaggu
(69) Kimpila (70) Udãyĩ
(71) Upavãnฺa (72) Meghiya
(73) Nãgita (74) Cunta
(75) Yasoja (76) Sabhiya
(77) Sela (78) Mahãparantapa
(79) Nãlaka (80) Aṅgulimãla

Mãtikã 144. Saṅghagunฺa (Virtues of the Saṅgha) means the nine virtues of the Saṅgha (Buddhist monks) who follow the Lord Buddha’s precepts. Their virtues are as follows:
(1) Be noble disciples of good conduct.
(2) Be of upright conduct and aim for Nibbãna attainment.
(3) Be of right conduct in order to attain enlightenment.
(4) Be good followers who respect the Dhamma.
(5) Be worthy of gift-giving.
(6) Be worthy of hospitality.
(7) Be worthy of offering.
(8) Be worthy of reverential salutation.
(9) Be a great field of merit.

Mãtikã 145. A preceptor is not allowed to guide one who is going to be
ordained before receiving full ordination. If any preceptor does that, he offends the disciplinary rules called Ãpatti Dukkatฺa (an offence of wrongdoing).

Mãtikã 146. When taking up Bhikkhuhip, there must be 10 or more Buddhist
monks who participate in the ordination ceremony. If there are less than 10 monks, it is not a full admission to the Saṅgha. Every monk offends the disciplinary rules (Ãpatti Dukkatฺa or an offence of wrongdoing) except in rural areas where at least 5 Buddhist monks can take part in an ordination ceremony.

Mãtikã 147. The characteristics of a Bhikkhu (a Buddhist monk) who is a
preceptor, are as follows:
(1) a noble one who has pure Sĩla (moral conduct).
(2) a noble one of Jhãna (absorption).
(3) a noble one of wisdom resulting from mental development.
(4) a noble one of release from defilements.
(5) a noble one of Ñãnฺa (insight).
(6) one who was ordained 10 or more years (vassã).

Mãtikã 148. Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) should not pay respect to the following:
(1) A person who has been ordained for fewer vassã (rainy seasons) than
oneself.
(2) A person who has not been ordained or is a householder.
(3) Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) in different Nikãya (groups) who speak
unrighteously; even though they are older.
(4) one who is female.
(5) one who is a ladies’ man (a homosexual).
(6) Bhikkhu who are on probation (Parivãsa).
(7) Bhikkhu who commit offences again while being on Probation
(Parivãsa).
(8) Bhikkhu who should do penance (Mãnatta).
(9) Bhikkhu who are doing penance (Mãnatta).
(10) Bhikkhu who have returned to the community of Saṅgha after
confessing to an offence.

Mãtikã 149. Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) should pay respect to the following:
(1) A person who has been ordained many more vassã (rainy seasons) than
oneself.
(2) Older Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) in different Nikãya (groups) who speak
righteously.
(3) The Lord Buddha.

Mãtikã 150. Bhikkhuaṅgha (Buddhist monks) must follow the prescripts as
disciplinary rules, or Sĩla; totaling 227 rules, as follows:
(1) Ãpatti Pãrãjika (Major offences). There are 4 disciplinary rules.
(2) Ãpatti Saṅghãdisesa (an offence entailing initial and subsequent meetings
of the Saṅgha). There are 13 disciplinary rules.
(3) Ãpatti Aniyata (Indefinite Rules). There are 2 disciplinary rules.
(4) Ãpatti Nissaggiya-pãcittĩya (an offence entailing expiation with forfeiture).
There are 30 disciplinary rules.
(5) Ãpatti Pãcittĩya (Minor Offences). There are 92 disciplinary rules.
(6) Ãpatti Pãtฺidesanĩya (an offence to be confessed). There are 4 disciplinary
rules.
(7) Ãpatti Dukkatฺa (an offence of wrongdoing). There are 75 disciplinary rules.
(8) Adhikaranฺasamatha (settling of a case; settlement of legal processes)
means the principles of transaction and contemplation of the Saṅgha’s case.
There are 7 rules.

Mãtikã 151. Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha (Buddhist nuns) must follow the prescripts as
disciplinary rules, or Sĩla; totaling 311 rules. The Lord Buddha prescribed 130 disciplinary rules for Buddhist nuns, plus 181 rules for Buddhist monks. The 311 disciplinary rules for Buddhist nuns are as follows:
(1) Ãpatti Pãrãjika (Major Offences). There are 4 disciplinary rules which are
prescribed for Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha, plus 4 disciplinary rules of Bhikkhuaṅgha; totaling
8 rules.
(2) Ãpatti Saṅghadisesa (an offence entailing initial and subsequent meetings
of the Saṅgha). There are 10 disciplinary rules which are prescribed for Bhikkhunĩ-saṅgha, plus 7 disciplinary rules of Bikkhusaṅgha; totaling 17 rules.
(3) Ãpatti Nissaggiya-pãcittĩya (an offence entailing expiation with forfeiture).
There are 12 disciplinary rules which are prescribed for Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha, plus 18 disciplinary rules of Bhikkhuaṅgha; totaling 30 rules.
(4) Ãpatti Pãcittĩya (Minor Offences). There are 96 disciplinary rules which are
prescribed for Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha, plus 70 disciplinary rules of Bhikkhuaṅgha; totaling 166 rules.
(5) Ãpatti Pãtฺidesanĩya (an offence to be confessed). There are 8 disciplinary
rules which are prescribed for Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha only. It is not allowed to hold Bhikkhuaṅgha’s disciplinary rules.
(6) Ãpatti Dukkatฺa (an offence of wrongdoing) All offences in Sekhiyavatta of
which there are 75 disciplinary rules for Bhikkhuaṅgha are up held by the Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha because there are no rules which are prescribed for them.
(7) Adhikaranฺasamatha (settling of a case; settlement of legal processes)
means the principles of transaction and contemplation of the Saṅgha’s case. The 7 disciplinary rules are held by Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha. There are no new rules which are prescribed for them.

Mãtikã 152. A Bhikkhunĩ (a Buddhist nun) who is a preceptor ordained as
Sikkhamãnã (a female novice undergoing a probationary course of two years) to be Bhikkhunĩ. Only one female novice is ordained in alternate years. The preceptor is not allowed to ordain 2 female novices.

Mãtikã 153. The Lord Buddha praised the great Bhikkhunĩ for their specialization
in various skills call Etadagga. There were 13 specialized Buddhist nuns, as follows:
(1) Mahãpajãpatĩ was a Rattaññũ (an elder of long standing).
(2) Khemã was a Bhikkhunĩ of great wisdom.
(3) Upolvanฺnฺã was a Bhikkhunĩ of great supernatural powers.
(4) Dhammadinnã was a great sermon giver.
(5) Patฺãcãrã was a great strict disciplinarian.
(6) Sakulã was a great Bhikkhunĩ with divine eyes.
(7) Kĩsãgotamĩ was Bhikkhunĩ in old gloomy yellow robes.
(8) Nandã was a great one of Jhãna Samãpatti (Jhãna attainment).
(9) Bhaddãkunฺdฺolkesã was one who attained enlightenment quickly.
(10) Bhaddakãpilãnĩ was great one at remembering former existences.
(11) Sonฺã was a Bhikkhunĩ of the great effort.
(12) Siṅgalamatã was one who achieved by faith.
(13) Baddãkaccãnã (Bimba) was one who achieved super knowledge.

Mãtikã 154. Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) should react to the Tripitฺaka (the Three
Baskets) and beliefs, as follows:
(1) Do not compose the Lord Buddha’s sayings in Sansakrit poetry.
(2) Do not learn and teach the worldly canon or Brahmin astrology.
(3) Do not learn and teach Tiracchãnavijjã (any study to be an obstacle on
the way to Nibbãna).
(4) Do not believe in fortune, but do not contradict other people if they believe
in their faith.

Mãtikã 155. Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) whose paths are to attain Nibbãna should react to women as follows:
(1) Do not look at them.
(2) If it is necessary to look at them, do not speak to them.
(3) If it is necessary to speak to them, be fully conscious.

 
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