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Definitions

Mãtikã 1. These are some of the words which are defined in this Buddhist
Constitution.
(1) The Buddhist Constitution is the highest laws or provisions in the Tripitaka which the Lord Buddha prescribed as the principle practices and regulations for Buddhists.
(2) “Mãtikã” means section or item.
(3) “Human” means a person who was born with 5 components called “Khandha” and has a high quality of mind to develop oneself to be enlightened by one’s own intellect to acquire the supreme principles of Dhamma.
(4) “Creature” means all living beings such as human beings, all kinds of animals, gods, godesses, Brahma, formless Brahma, creatures from hell, etc.
(5) “Mind” means all kinds of perceptions of living beings.
(6) “Cetasika” means a quality of mind both good and bad which affects one’s personal qualities or behaviors such as being talkative, calm, cheerful, kind, cruel, etc.
(7) “Rũpa” means all kinds of human and animal bodies.
(8) “Nibbãna” means an Arahanta’s death of lust, hatred and delusion. It is a particular kind of death within the Mind, Cetasika and Rũpa are no longer reborn in a state of existence (heaven, world and hell).
(9) “Khandha” means the components of life making up each human and animal. There are 5 components or aggregates: body, feeling, perception, state of mind and mind or consciousness.
(10) “Rũpa-Khandha” (Body) means the components of life in the form of a body with 32 organs.
(11) “Vedanã-Khandha” (Feeling) means human and animal feelings such as happiness, pain, discomfort, sorrow, gladness, indifference, worry, hot, cold, etc. Vedanã-Khanda is called Cetasika.
(12) “Saññã-Khandha” means human and animal perceptions. The brain and mind perceive information by way of the eye, ear, nose, tongue and the body senses are called Ãyatana and becomes memory. This information still exists in the mind and is called “Cetasika”.
(13) “Saṅkhãra-Khandha” means the state of mind which affects one’s thinking of doing or saying something. It is an important factor for reinforcing or destroying. There are almost 50 kinds, e.g. hatred, influences a human’s potential destruction and wisdom influences a human’s potential intelligence.
(14) “Viññãna-khandha means human and animal consciousness which is an important principle of perception. It functions with all perceptions know as soul.
(15) “Aniccaṅ” means the impermanence of a human’s or animal’s body and mind, including all substances in the world. It is perpetually changing.
(16) “Dukkha” means suffering – the burden of a human’s or animal’s life in seeking food or things needed for survival in the cycle of rebirth until attain Nibbãna.
(17) “Attã” means the immortal self which exists in humans and creatures. It continues to exist in a new body after death until it returns to be with God. In the Christian religion it is called the soul. The Hindu religion calls it Ãtman; the Jain religion calls it Jiva; the Muslims call it Arrua. On the other hand, Buddhism refuses the concept of “Attã”.
(18) “Ãtman” means an immortal self which exists in humans and animals, which is a subself separate from the principle self called Paramãtman. It is part of a Hindu’s belief.
(19) “Anattã” means soul-lessness. According to the Buddha’s precept, it is said to be empty of self.
(20) “Avijjã” means false ideas which conceal the way of release from the cycle of rebirth.
(21) “Tanhã” means the cravings of humans and animals. It is the cause of suffering called Samudaya. This cause is the origin of all living beings.
(22) “Upãdãna” means clinging mind which causes humans and creatures to be reborn in the cycle of rebirth.
(23) “Nĩvaranฺa” means defilements which are barriers to enlightenment. They can be destroyed when one practices meditation at a primary stage called
Patฺhamajhãna .
(24) “Jhãna” means the state of mind which destroys Nĩvaranฺa or defilements at the moment of practicing meditation.
(25) “Samãdhi” means the practice of mind meditation on something until the mind becomes calm. When one practices meditation at a level of Jhãna, Nĩvaranฺa or defilement will be destroyed. This state of mind is pure and it will show insight to human beings.
(26) “Saṅsãravata” means the cycle of all living creatures, birth and death. It is endless and always changes with uncertainty.
(27) “Adhikarana” means a case or disciplinary case of dispute where a group of monks have to make excellent and fair judgments.

 
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