Mãtikã 45. The Buddhist doctrine is the principles of truth which the Lord Buddha prescribed as the principles, ideal and methods to reach the purpose of each Dhamma.
Mãtikã 46. In each Dhamma category, the Lord Buddha prescribed the Buddhist doctrines as the main principles, ideals and methods of truth for followers to earn a living freely without any commands to force anyone to follow, and there are no penalties for those who don’t follow them.
Mãtikã 47. Those who follow or violate the principles of truth which the Lord Buddha prescribed will individually get their benefits and punishments according to their wholesome and unwholesome actions. Benefits result from meritorious actions and punishments result from evil actions. It depends on one’s actions.
Mãtikã 48. In the monastic discipline category, the Lord Buddha prescribed the precepts as rules and regulations for disciples including Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks), Bhikkunĩ (Buddhist nuns), and Sãmanฺera (male novices), Sãmanฺerĩ (female novices) and Sikkhamãnã (female novices undergoing a probationary course of two years before receiving the higher ordination). The Buddha precepts are the disciplinary rules which are similar to laws regulating a disciples’ behavior. Any disciple who violates it will be punished according to his or her actions.
Mãtikã 49. “Dhamma” means the state which remains or changes according to the cause of each Dhamma. In conclusion, it refers to everything that we perceive and do not perceive, including living beings and non-living beings, both concrete and abstract. Wholesome and unwholesome actions are included in the Dhamma.
Mãtikã 50. “All Dhamma” refers to Paramatthadhamma (the Absolute Truth) that is Mind, Cetasika, Rũpa and Nibbãna. There is the ultimate reality-nibbãna -in the Dhamma, as shown in Palĩ:
“Nibbãna Pariyosãnã Sappe Dhammã”
Mãtikã 51. “Dhammagunฺa” refers to the goodness of Dhamma which the Lord Buddha presented. There are six characteristics of Dhamma, as follows:
(1) The Dhamma which the Lord Buddha presented is right.
(2) Those who are under Dhamma consideration and do their best practices will be manifested by their own intellects.
(3) One can practice whenever one wants to and achieve results without time limits. It does not depend on time.
(4) Dhamma is provable, so one is invited to practice and prove its results by oneself.
(5) One should be under Dhamma consideration and do one’s best practice in order to achieve Dhamma in the ultimate reality-nibbãna.
(6) One, individually, experiences and achieves results by oneself.
Mãtikã 52. The Lord Buddha’s precepts consist of 84,000 Dhammakhandha (a category of the Dhamma) called Tripitฺaka (Buddhist Scriptures). They are divided into 3 categories, as follows:
(1) Vinaya-pitฺaka or Gantha Vinaya (a scripture of monastic discipline) consists of 21,000 Dhammakhandha.
(2) Suttanta-pitฺaka or Gantha Sutra (a scripture of discourse) consists of 21,000 Dhammakhandha.
(3) Abhidhamma-pitฺaka or Gantha Abhidhamma (the Higher Doctrine) consists of 42,000 Dhammakhandha.
Mãtikã 53. The principle count of Buddha percepts in Buddhism depends on the following:
(1) Gantha Vinaya consists of 21,000 Dhammakhandha.
- One Mãtikã is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
- One Podbhãjanĩ is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
- One Ãpat is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
- One Antrãpat is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
- One Anãpat is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
- Each Tikacched (7 Tikacched) is counted as a Dhammakhandha.
(2) Gantha Sutta consists of 21,000 Dhammakhandha.
- Sutta, which has one Anusondhi (connection), is counted as one
Dhammakhandha in each Anusondhi.
- Each question at a time is counted as one Dhammakandha.
- Each answer at a time is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
(3) Gantha Abhidhamma consists of 42,000 Dhammakhandha which is divided into groups:
- Each Tika (groups of three) is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
- Each Duka (groups of two) is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
- Each Cittavãra (mind) is counted as one Dhammakhandha.
Mãtikã 54. The absolute truth of all Dhamma is called Paramatthadham or Paramatthasacca which consists of 4 highest ideals:
(1) “Mind or Soul” means all kinds of living beings’ perceptions, including
(2) “Cetasika” means a quality of mind which affects one’s personal qualities
or a creature’s behavior.
(3) “Rũpa” means all kinds of human and animal bodies, including all kinds of
materials which can be touched e.g. trees, mountains, automobiles, homes, etc.
(4) “Nibbãna” means the cessation of Mind, Cetasika and Rũpa. Persons who
achieve Dhamma die within the Mind; Cetasika and Rũpa are no longer reborn in a state of existence. It is the cessation of the cycle of rebirth forever.
Mãtikã 55. “Dhamma achievement” means the understanding of ultimate reality or the 4 Absolute Truths: Mind, Cetasika, Rũpa and Nibbãna, which can be divided into 2 categories: arising and cessation.
(1) Mind, Cetasika and Rũpa are the arising section.
(2) Nibbãna is the cessation section.
Mãtikã 56. The arising section – Mind, Cetasika and Rũpa refers to the five aggregates:
- Mind refers to Viññãnฺa – khandha (consciousness).
- Cetasika refers to Vedanã-khandha (feeling), Saññã-khandha (perception) and Saṅkhãra-khandha (mental formations).
- Rũpa refers to Rũpa-khandha (body).
The arising section can be defined in detail to show the process of all living
beings’ arising in the cycle of rebirth called Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation) or Idappaccayata, as follows :
- Mind refers to Viññãnฺa (consciousness).
- Cetasika refers to Avijjã (ignorance), Saṅkhãra, Nãma (name), Phassa (mental impression), Vedanã (feeling), Tanฺhã (craving), Upãdãna (clinging), Jãti (birth), Jarã (oldness) and Marana (death).
- Rũpa refers to form, Salฺãyatana (the sixth senses) and Bhava (the state of existence).
All living beings are born in the cycle of rebirth under the rule of
Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation). No one can create them.
Mãtikã 57. The cessation section-Nibbãna-refers to Mind, Cetasika, Rũpa cessation or the five aggregates cessation. It means that the Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation) definitely ceases.
The understanding of ultimate reality (the 4 absolute truths), the five aggregates and the Chain of Causation make one let things go (not cling to them and one does not want an immortal life). One’s attention to attain Nibbãna refers to cessation of ignorance, craving and clinging. As a result, that person completely achieves Dhamma in Buddhism because of cause of suffering cessation (not arising in the cycle of rebirth anymore.
Mãtikã 58. Buddhism is the religion which does not believe in god (Adevaniyama). The belief that god is the one who created the world and human beings is unacceptable. However, the arising of all human beings and creatures result from defilements in the mind that causes them to be born according to the
Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation).
All living beings and non-living beings which arise in the world or the universe (including technology such as ears, planes, computers, etc.) depend upon the
Patฺiccasamuppãda, so god is not regarded for protection in Buddhism.
Mãtikã 59. All living beings and creatures are comprised of the five aggregates:
(1) Rũpa-khandha refers to body.
(2) Vedanã-khandha refers to feeling (happiness, suffering or indifference).
(3) Saññã-khandha refers to memory.
(4) Saṅkhãra-khandha refers to thought or intelligence.
(5) Viññãnฺa-khandha refers to mind or perceptions through Ãyatana (the
The five aggregates will change according to uncontrolled factors and depend upon the factors which are not states of immortality.
Every aggregate must be in Tilakkhanฺa (Three Signs of Beings). These three
characteristic are, as follows:
(1) Aniccaṅ means uncertainty or impermanence. All things always change, and they are unstable.
(2) Dukkhaṅ means suffering - the burden which is difficult to bear.
(3) Anattã means non-self. It is not immortal.
Mãtikã 60. The Lord Buddha was of the sun race, and he compared the five aggregates as follows:
“Rũpa” was compared with ice.
“Vedanã” was compared with bubbles or soap bubbles.
“Saññã” was compared with haze.
“Saṅkhãra” was compared with banana trees.
“Viññãnฺa” was compared with magic.
Mãtikã 61. A person who knows the origin of life understands that one’s life is comprised of the five aggregates, which state:
(1) the five aggregates are not ours.
(2) we are not five aggregates.
(3) the five aggregates are not immortal.
Mãtikã 62. Buddhism is the religion which teaches human beings to destroy craving and purify the mind to release attachment to one’s life and property. However, they seek happiness in their mind instead according to the Buddhist proverb, as follows:
“Natthi Santiparanฺ Sukhanฺ” means “a calm mind is the supreme happiness.”
“Nibbãnaṅ Paramaṅ Sukhaṅ ” means “Nibbãna is the supreme happiness.” (Extinction is the extreme of all happiness.)
Mãtikã 63. A person who misunderstands the life of oneself and others and begs god for an immortal life is named “Micchãdhitฺtฺhi” (false view).
Mãtikã 64. A person who understands the nature of life knows that life arises from Mind, Cetasika and Rũpa and to be born with various characteristics such as human beings, animals, divine beings and Brahma gods etc. because of their Kamma (intended action).
A person who understands the truth and the origin of life knows that all living beings swim to be born and die around the changing cycle called the cycle of rebirth. As a result, this person releases attachment to one’s life and property and conveys one’s mind to Nibbãna (cessation of arising, extinction). Whoever concentrates on this point of view is named “Sammãditฺtฺhi” (right understanding).
Mãtikã 65. The origin of the universe including human beings, animals, divine beings, Brahma gods, etc. arises from craving which is the cause of suffering depending upon the Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation).
The world of materials refers to the world, the moon, the sun, the star fragments, trees, mountains, etc. originating from the combination of the five elements: Patฺhavĩ Dhãtu (earth), Ãpo Dhãtu (water), Vãyo Dhãtu (wind or air), Tejo Dhãtu (fire) and Ãkãsa Dhãtu (space).
The world of life refers to human beings, animals, divine beings, Brahma gods and creatures from hell, etc. originating from the combination of the six elements:
Patฺhavi Dhãtu (earth), Ãpo Dhãtu (water), Vãyo Dhãtu (wind or air), Tejo Dhãtu (fire), Ãkãsa Dhãtu (space) and Viññãnฺa Dhãtu (consciousness).
Mãtikã 66. Both the world of materials and the world of life exist under the rule of “Tilakkhanฺa” (Three Signs of Beings), as follows:
(1) Aniccaฺṅ is impermanence. The component of elements is a factor in change.
(2) Dukkhaṅ is suffering because the component of elements is always
defective, so it becomes a burden on one’s life, especially in seeking food endlessly.
(3) Anattã is not immortal and depends on other factors.
Mãtikã 67. Vipallãsa (perversity) means unusual perception and beliefs,
(1) It is perverse to believe in certainty rather than uncertainty.
(2) It is perverse to believe in suffering rather than happiness.
(3) It is perverse to believe in self rather than non-self.
(4) It is perverse to believe in loathsomeness rather than beauty.
Mãtikã 68. The universe and all living beings arise in the cycle of rebirth depending on factors of each element taking turns for a long time. No one can indicate its starting point and termination.
Mãtikã 69. All human beings and creatures need to eat food – other type of animal meat, plants or vegetables for nourishing their bodies because of the following factors:
(1) The body changes naturally.
(2) The body needs to be filled all the time.
(1) The body is not immortal, and it cannot stand by its self.
Mãtikã 70. All living beings need nutriments for each aggregate, as follows:
(1) Food for the body (Rũpa) (called Kavalฺiṅkãrãhãra) is healthy food for nourishing bodies. Unhealthy food causes deterioration.
(2) Contact as nutriment (called Phassãhãra). This causes feelings (Vedanã). Beneficial contact causes pleasant and delightful feelings. Harmful contact causes anger and resentment.
(3) Memory as nutriment (called Manosañcetanãhãra). Beneficial memory causes wisdom and makes ones lead their right way of living. Non-beneficial memory causes less wisdom and makes ones mislead their way of life.
(4) Mental choice as nutriment (called Manosañcetanãhãra). Beneficial mental choice causes good behavior and wisdom to get rid of defilements. Non-beneficial mental choice causes adverse and intense behavior and makes one ignorant and increases defilements.
(5) Consciousness as nutriment (called Viññãnฺãhãra). Consciousness of making merit causes ones to be born in blissful states of existence, but demerit causes one to be born in a woeful existence.
Mãtikã 71. One hopes to have a permanent self or an immortal life in the next state of existence because of the following reasons:
(1) Bhava-tanฺhã (craving for existence) - one desires to be born again.
(2) Kãma-tanฺhã (sensual craving) - one is infatuated with sensual pleasure.
(3) Avijjã (ignorance) - one misunderstands the truth of life.
(4) Upãdãna (clinging mind) - one is concerned about one’s life.
Mãtikã 72. One is bored with one’s life or oppressed by an unpleasant life and feels so distressed that one kills oneself because of the following reasons:
(1) Vibhava – tanฺhã (craving for non-existence) - one feels depressed to
(2) Avijjã (ignorance) - one misunderstands the truth of life.
Mãtikã 73. One believes firmly in Attã or Ãtman (an immortal self) called Micchãditฺtฺhi (false view) –- Ditฺtฺhigahanaṅ (confused thoughts), Ditฺtฺhikantaro (less wisdom), Ditฺtฺhivisũkayikaṅ (wrong views which cause suffering), Ditฺtฺhivipaphanditaṅ (struggling for something), Ditฺtฺhisaññojanaṅ (being tied to the cycle of rebirth) and Vipallãso (perversity).
Mãtikã 74. Life refers to all kinds of creatures’ birth and continues to exist as long as they do not die.
Mãtikã 75. Death refers to all kinds of creatures’ deaths and no longer to exist.
Mãtikã 76. A creatures’ life is very short when compared with the cycle of rebirth. It is short, as follows:
(1) The dew on top of grass becomes dry because of the sunlight.
(2) Bubbly water disappears quickly.
(3) A trace of water, when dragging on it with a stick, disappears quickly.
(4) A stream which flows down a mountain never returns upward.
(5) A normal person who wants to spit saliva out immediately.
(6) A piece of meat which is placed on a hot pan gets burnt very quickly.
(7) A cow that is being sent for slaughter.
Mãtikã 77. The word “creature” means a person who is pleased to cling to contentment, love, amusement and desire for a body, feeling, memory, thought and mind or cling to the five aggregates, Cetasika and Body.
Mãtikã 78. All kinds of creatures are born from one of 4 characteristics, as follows:
(1) Jalãbuja (womb-born creatures) are creatures who are born in women and
female animals’ womb such as human beings, cattle, buffaloes, elephants, horses and lions, etc.
(2) Anฺdฺaja (egg-born creatures) are creatures who are born in eggs and
hatch out such as birds, ducks, chickens and turtles, etc.
(3) Saṅsedaja (moisture-born creatures) are creatures who are born in
moisture and dirty places with unpleasant smells such as worms, diseases and fungi.
(4) Opapãtika (creatures having spontaneous births) are creatures who
are born without parents such as celestials, Brahma and hell creatures.
Mãtikã 79. The word “all creatures” refers to all living beings who are born in the cycle of rebirth 31 Bhumi (a plane of existence) or 3 Bhava (states of existence), as follows:
- Arũpa–Bhava (the formless world) is the formless Brahma.
- Rũpa–Bhava (the formed world) is the formed Brahma, celestials, human beings, animals and hell creatures.
- Asaññã–Bhava (the non-perception sphere) is a Brahma who is without perception.
Mãtikã 80. The formless Brahma is born in Arũpa–Bhava (the formless world) with 4 aggregates: Vedanã-khandha (feeling), Saññã-khandha (perception), Saṅkhãra-khandha (mental formation) and Viññãnฺa-khandha (consciousness).
Mãtikã 81. The formed Brahma, celestials, human beings, animals and hell creatures are born in Rũpa-Bhava (the formed world) with 5 aggregates: Rũpa-khandha (body), Vedanã-khandha (feeling), Saññã-khandha (perception), Saṅkhãra-khandha (mental formation) and Viññãnฺa-khandha (consciousness).
Mãtikã 82. The Asaññĩ Brahma is born in Asaññã-Bhava (non-perception sphere) with only one aggregate: Rũpa-khandha (body).
Mãtikã 83. All human beings and animals’ births result from good and bad actions which they intend to do.
Mãtikã 84. The word “Dhammacakkhu” (the Eye of Truth) refers to the understanding of all truths; that there are birth sections and a cessation section. It is the wisdom of a couple of truths which naturally occur.
Mãtikã 85. All living beings are born and cease alternatively because of interior defilements dealing with 3 Cetasika: Avijjã (ignorance or misunderstanding of the truth of life), Tanฺhã (craving, desire of immortal life or desire for birth in the state of existence again) and clinging or attachment to one’s life and property. These factors support all living beings’ births and cessation alternatives forever.
Mãtikã 86. The Lord Buddha found the truth of life by his own intellect, called Ariyasacca (the Four Noble Truths), as follows:
(1) Dukkha (suffering) means all living beings who are born with 5 aggregates
(in Rũpa–Bhava), 4 aggregates (in Arũpa – Bhava) and only one aggregate (in Asaññĩ– Bhava) have to bear the burden of ones’ life as long as they are born in the cycle of rebirth.
(2) Samudaya (the cause of suffering) means the defilements which originate
in all living beings - to be born and die endlessly. There are 3 main types of defilements: Kãma-tanฺhã (sensual craving), Bhava-tanฺhã (craving for existence) and Vibhava-tanฺhã (craving for non-existence).
(3) Nirodha (the cessation of suffering) means Nibbãna, that is the result of
the cessation of Samudaya which is the living beings’ origin (in item 2) and the cessation of suffering (in item 1). These completed cessations result in extinction and extreme happiness.
(4) Magga (the path leading to the cessation of suffering) means the practice
of Nirodha (in item 3) which is the path to Nibbãna called Atฺthangikamagga
(Noble Eightfold Path) or Majjhimã patฺipadã (the middle path). The middle practical path deals with the following practices:
- having the intellectual understanding of the Noble Truths and the
causes of birth.
- having the thought of being free from sensual pleasure which causes
- having pure speech.
- having pure actions.
- having a pure occupation.
- having effort to perform meritorious actions and abstain from evil
- having self-consciousness of body, feeling, mind–perception
consideration and consideration of the Dhamma used for elevating the mind to be free from clinging regularly.
- Practice meditation to calm the mind from Nĩvaranฺa until it is pure and
absorbed; at least at the first to eight stage of holiness (absorption).
A person who understands and practices according to the Noble Truths absolutely achieves the Dhamma of Buddhism.
Mãtikã 87. Saṅsãravata (cycle of rebirth) means the circulation of all living beings’ lives which take turns being born in different bodies endlessly. They rotate to be born countlessly from one kind of animal to others and return to be born in the same kind as long as the defilements, which are the origination (Samudaya), still exist in their minds.
Saṅsãravata, called in full “Anamattaggasaṅsãra” which means Saṅsãravata, where no one can find the origination and the termination. It is like a cycle which does not indicate the beginning and the termination.
Mãtikã 88. The period of Saṅsãravata is uncountable as years or a million years. The birth and the cessation are always circulated in the following ways:
A person was born and died alternatively in a different Bhava (state of existence). His or her bones are eternally gathered in a pile which is as high as Vepulla Mountain.
If a person weeps because his or her beloved ones passed away, the gathered tears will be much more than the gathered water in all of the oceans.
When splitting a tree into 6 inch pieces and supposing that each piece is one’s mother, maternal grandmother and great grandmother, the number of trees will be exhausted. The mother’s birth is still going on endlessly.
Mãtikã 89. The birth in any Bhava (state of existence) is impermanent. All living beings have to bear their aggregates which are not eternal happiness, and they are not immortal.
Mãtikã 90. The Lord Buddha compared the small amount of excrement, urine, saliva, lymph and blood with the period of birth in the state of existence. Even though there is a small amount of them, they smell bad. They were compared with a very short period of birth. The Lord Buddha did not admire the birth in any state of existence as short as snapping one’s fingers.
Mãtikã 91. The creatures in every state of existence are born under the rule of
Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation). They are born to be Brahma gods, divine beings, celestials, formless Brahma, Asaññĩ Brahma, human beings, animals, hell creatures, ghosts, demons, etc. If any creatures’ Chain of Causation ends, they become completely extinct – Nibbãna.
Mãtikã 92. Creatures become extinct because of cessation of Avijjã (ignorance),
Tanฺhã (craving) and Upãdãna (clinging) and they are set free from the cycle of rebirth. No more suffering, to be born and die in any state of existence. They encounter the great happiness forever. This is called Nibbãna.
Mãtikã 93. The noble individual who achieves the “Fruit of the Worthy One” or the final stage of holiness is extinct (Nibbãna) because of the cessation of the five aggregates, as follows:
- Rũpa cessation.
- All Vedanã completely cease.
- Saññã cessation.
- Saṅkhãra cessation.
- Viññãna cessation.
The cessation of the five aggregates is similar to a blazing fire which is put out
by the black-smith with an iron hammer. The noble individual releases the clinging of sensuality (called Arahanta who has attained Nibbãna) – no longer to be reborn in the cycle of rebirth.
Mãtikã 94. The birth of all of the world’s creatures consists of the rule of the combination of the six elements depending on the Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation). No one created them, and one’s life is not judged by anyone. Their lives continue to exist by their own inner factors: craving, ignorance and clinging minds.
Mãtikã 95. Kamma (action) is the cause of expanding states of existence to continue being reborn in the cycle of rebirth, and all living beings receive the results of their actions. The misunderstandings of belief in god makes humans scared of natural appearance and think that all phenomena happen because of gods. In fact, it is not because of gods. Even gods still continue to exist by their own inner factors: craving, ignorance and clinging mind, depending on the Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation). They still continue to be reborn in different Bhava (state of existence) according to their own Kamma (action) like any other creatures. Therefore, the ideas or statements which claim that god will help them are nonsensical and useless.
Mãtikã 96. The principles of the doctrine (Dhamma) are the principle of nature which the enlightened Lord Buddha taught human beings. He prescribed them as the laws or provisions openly and distinguished them to be comprehensible for all human beings.
Mãtikã 97. The arising and cessation of the world of materials such as the sun, the moon, houses, ears, television, etc. and the world of life such as humans, animals, divine beings, Brahma, hell creatures, etc. consists of the rule of the combination of the 5-6 elements depending on the Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation).
Mãtikã 98. Dhamma is the principle of Lokadhamma (worldly conditions) - both the world of material and the world of life. All worldly conditions arise, stay, and cease according to the Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation).
Mãtikã 99. The proven truth is a complete result when the practice of a particular action is proven. It is not proven by guessing or reason according to logic or philosophy.
Mãtikã 100. The birth of all living beings in all Bhava (state of existence) depends on the Patฺiccasamupãda. Any god or creature cannot create them.
Mãtikã 101. The quoted statements that god is the one who created, maintained and destroyed the world or all living creatures is contrary to the truth of
Patฺiccasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation), so begging for something from god will not happen as requested.
Mãtikã 102. When solving a problem, the causation of each problem is solved. One solves a problem by concentrating on the causation which originates suffering by oneself. It is impossible to solve a problem by begging someone to do so.
Mãtikã 103. Human beings and animals are not born by themselves or any other persons. However, they are born from the combination of elements under the rule of Tilakkhaṇa, as stated in preceding Mãtikã (Mãtikã 65 – 66). When the causation of elements ceases, they also cease.
When comparing human beings and animals with plants which grow from seed and soil, their bodies form from khandha, the elements and Ấyatana (the twelve Spheres) and they cease when all of their components cease.
Mãtikã 104. Persons with Avijjã (ignorance), Tanฺhã (cravings) and Upãdãna (clinging) receive feedback from one’s own meritorious and demeritorious actions. The human beings and animals compared with plants which grow from seed and soil. Their bodies arise from Khanda, elements and Ãyatana (the twelve Spheres) and they cease when all components cease. In other words, the ones with Jhãna (absorption) receive feedback from Jhãna attained by meditation.
When the ones who eliminate Avijjã (ignorance), Tanฺhã (craving) and Upãdãna (clinging) have the intelligence to cut off all relationships and duties without fear, so they can meet the extinction of all defilements and suffering. Then, it is clear that all burdens finish and complete. There are no tasks, duties or responsibilities to do anymore.
Mãtikã 105. Those who have never heard the Buddha’s percepts and do not know how the body, memory, thought and mind arise is because of Avijjã (ignorance), which hides the knowledge of the following causes:
(1) Not knowing that the body naturally arises.
(2) Not knowing that the body, feelings, memory, thought and mind naturally deteriorate and disintegrate.
(3) Not knowing that the body, feelings, memory, thought and mind naturally arise and deteriorate.
Mãtikã 106. The noble disciples with Dhammavinaya (the Norm-Discipline) are the ones who have heard the precepts and understand with Vijjã (knowledge) because they have the knowledge of the following causes:
(1) The body naturally arises.
(2) The body, feelings, memory, thought and mind naturally deteriorate and disintegrate.
(3) The body, feelings, memory, thought and mind naturally arise and
Mãtikã 107. Persons who are Stream-Enterers have the wisdom of the Buddha’s precepts which is the wisdom of noble persons. While they are still alive, they can predict it by themselves so that they are not born in a state of misery or the four planes of loss and woe. They also are not born as animals and as ghosts of the departed. These persons, who have attained the first stage of holiness, achieve to be Stream-Enterers and they will be reborn in the cycle or rebirth within 7 rounds.
Mãtikã 108. Upakilesa (mental defilements) are the barriers to meditation. There are 3 levels of mental defilements, as follows:
(1) Rough mental defilements such as Kãya-duccarita (misconduct in action), Vacĩ-duccarita (misconduct by speech), and Mano-duccarita (misconduct by mind).
(2) Medium mental defilements such as Kãma-vitakka (thought of sensual pleasures), Byãpãda-vitakka (malevolence or ill-will), and Vihiṅsã-vitakka (cruel thought).
(3) Fine mental defilements such as lineal thought, thought of the country and thought of not to humiliate people.
Mãtikã 109. These are the defilements between the noble ones and the worldly
persons, as follows:
(1) It is impossible for persons who achieve Dhamma to cling to conditioned things with certainty, but worldly persons possibly do.
(2) It is impossible for persons who achieve Dhamma to cling to conditioned things with happiness, but worldly persons possibly do.
(3) It is impossible for persons who achieve Dhamma to cling to Attã or Ãtman (an immortal self), but worldly persons possibly do.
Mãtikã 110. A person or an animal will get results from intended good and
bad actions except persons who attain Nibbãna will not get results in relinking time. However, they will get it while they are alive.
What Arahanta did is just only an action. It is not defined as meritorious or
demeritorious, and it is not a factor leading to the cycle of rebirth.
Mãtikã 111. An intended action is a person’s or an animal’s performance with
expectation of result or paying no attention to perform with an expectation of ignorant results.
Mãtikã 112. There are no exceptions to any persons or animals getting the
result of their actions that they performed with false views (Micchãditฺtฺhi).
Mãtikã 113. There are no exceptions to any persons or animals getting the
result of their actions that they performed with right views (Sammãditฺtฺhi).
Mãtikã 114. A human being’s births consists of 3 factors that happen at the
same time, as follows:
(1) Parents live together for intercourse.
(2) Mother has menstrual cycle. It means that she has ovum or eggs which the womb prepares for pregnancy.
(3) A creature’s or a living being’s rebirth means rebirth - relinking arises while the father’s sperm fertilizes the mother’s egg.
Mãtikã 115. The father’s sperm which enters to fertilize the mother’s egg is very
tiny compared with the oil of sesame when the new born of cãmmãrĩ ’s hair is dipped in a little sesame oil and tossed away 7 times by an energic man. The rest of the sesame oil is compared with the creature’s rebirth - relinking.
Mãtikã 116. Life starts at the first one-fourth second when the human being’s
rebirth - link arises at the same time as the father’s sperm fertilizes the mother’s egg to procreate humanity.
Mãtikã 117. All kinds of creatures’ lives (womb-born creatures, egg-born
creatures and moisture-born creatures) likely start at the first one-fourth second of rebirth - relinking.
Mãtikã 118. The Brahma, celestial and hell creatures’ lives start after they die
(called Cuti - shifting out of one existence to another) and become the Brahma, celestial and hell creatures without their parents giving birth.
Mãtikã 119. The death of human beings and animals is their termination in
each Bhava because of the following:
(1) the termination of merit.
(2) the termination of age.
(3) the barriers of life.
(4) an accident.
Mãtikã 120. Cuti or the death of celestials and Brahma is caused by:
(1) the termination of merit.
(2) the termination of age.
(3) making a wish to the consciousness thereby disconnecting the present life to another.
Mãtikã 121. Cuti or the death of hell creatures is caused by:
(1) the termination of demerit.
Mãtikã 122. Virtue is a meritorious action of the following:
(1) donating to a charity or contributing something.
(2) regularly conducting oneself morally.
(3) progressing in meditation (mental development).
(4) having a reverence.
(5) rendering services.
(6) sharing or giving out merit.
(7) rejoicing in other’s merit.
(8) listening to the Doctrine or right teaching.
(9) teaching the Doctrine or showing truth.
(10) forming correct views.
Mãtikã 123. A person’s evil deeds are as follows:
(1) the destruction of one’s life, oppressing others or ordering someone
to do so.
(2) taking what is not given or ordering someone to steal or rob instead.
(3) committing sexual misconduct.
(4) telling a lie for one’s own advantage or another’s.
(5) provoking people into mistrust.
(6) speaking rudely or scolding harshly.
(7) speaking with rambling speech (just for fun or talking nonsense).
(9) vengefulness, vindictiveness or vengeance.
(10) having false views.
Mãtikã 124. The principles of meritorious action leading to the growth and good destination are as follows:
(1) Refrain from the destruction of life or oppressing others. Be ready to help
them with mercy.
(2) Refrain from stealing or robbing. Be ready to take care of others’ property.
(3) Refrain from sexual misconduct. Be pleased with ones’ own partner.
(4) Refrain from telling a lie for one’s own advantage or another’s. Tell the
truth regarding beneficial matters.
(5) Refrain from provoking people into mistrust. Speak to encourage them
into stick together.
(6) Refrain from harsh speech, scolding people to embarrassment.
(7) Refrain from speaking with rambling speech or talking nonsense.
Speak at an appropriate time about useful matters.
(8) Refrain from covetousness.
(9) Refrain from vengefulness, vindictiveness and vengeance. Wish
people to be free from trouble including animals.
(10)Have right views, for example, donations and offerings are not fruitless, and there are results of meritorious and demeritorious actions.
Mãtikã 125. Release from the cycle of rebirth is called Vimutti or Vimokkha (deliverance) which is the achievement of Dhamma.
Dhamma achievement in the case of mind practice is called Cetovimutti (deliverance of mind or liberation by concentration).
Dhamma achievement in the case of wisdom is called Paññãvimutti (deliverance through insight).
Dhamma achievement in the case of mind practice until gaining insight is called Ubhatobhãgavimutti (one liberated in both ways).
Mãtikã 126. There are 4 levels of Dhamma achievement according to the Lord Buddha’s teaching, as follows:
(1) Sotãpanna (a Stream-Enterer) is one who has attained the first stage of
holiness and will return to be reborn in the human realm with in seven rounds of the state of existence before attaining Nibbãna because three kinds of restraints which are eliminated which are: Sakkãyaditฺtฺhi (false view of individuality) – opinion about an immortal body inserted in one’s body); Vicikicchã (doubt) – uncertainty about making a decision to believe or disbelieve and Silabbataparãmãsa (adherence to rules and rituals) - a strict follower with superficial performance.
(2) Sakadãgãmĩ or Sakidãgãmĩ ( a Once-Returner) is one who has attained
the second stage of holiness and will be reborn on the earth only once before attaining the final emancipation because three kinds of restraints are eliminated which are: Sakkãyaditฺtฺhi (false view of individuality), Vicikicchã (doubt) and Silabbataparãmãsa (adherence to rules and rituals) including a decrease in lust, passion and hatred; however, wisdom increases.
(3) Anãgãmĩ (a Non-Returner) is one who has attained the third stage of
holiness and will not be reborn on the earth anymore but will be reborn to be a Brahman god in the Brahma world called Suddhãvãsa (the Five Pure Abodes) When finishing one’s lifespan; he or she will attain Nibbãna in Suddhãvãsa because 5 kinds of restraints are eliminated which are: Sakkãyaditฺtฺhi (false view of individuality), Vicikicchã (doubt), Silabbataparãmãsa (adherence to rules and rituals), Kãmarãga (sensual passion) and Patฺigha (repulsion).
(4) Arahanta (the Holy One) is one who has attained the fourth stage of
holiness which is the most perfect and will attain Nibbãna in the present state of existence - no longer to be reborn in any states of existence anymore because ten kinds of restraints are eliminated which are: Sakkãyaditฺtฺhi (false view of individuality), Vicikicchã (doubt), Silabbataparãmãsa (adherence to rules and rituals), Kãmarãga (sensual passion), Patฺigha (repulsion), Rũparãga (greed for fine-material existence), Arũparãga (greed for immaterial existence), Mãna (conceit), Uddhacca (restlessness) and Aijjã (ignorance).
Mãtikã 127. When the noble one considers oneself and other animals according
to Mãtikã 56 and Mãtikã 65, is bored with the five aggregates, and is released from lust until the mind is pure. This kind of person knows that it is the end of rebirth, the Holy Life and responsibility.
Mãtikã 128. Those who achieve Dhamma will attain Nibbãna on the earth or in
Kãmãvacara-bhũmi (sensuous plane). They are classified into 5 groups, as follows:
(1) Sotãpanna (a Stream-Enterer) who will be reborn in the state of existence
on the earth within 7 rounds.
(2) Sotãpanna (a Stream-Enterer) who will be reborn in the state of existence
on the earth within 2-3 rounds.
(3) Sotãpanna (a Stream-Enterer) who will be reborn in the state of existence
on the earth in only 1 round.
(4) Sakadãgãmĩ (a Once Returner) who will be reborn in the state of
existence on the earth in only 1 round.
(5) Arahanta (the Holy One) who will attain Nibbãna in the final state of
existence of one’s own rebirth.
Mãtikã 129. Those who will attain Nibbãna in Suddhãvãsa (the Five Pure
Abodes) are, as follows:
(1) Anãgãmĩ (a Non-Returner) who will attain Nibbãna in Suddhãvãsa
during half of a lifespan.
(2) Anãgãmĩ (a Non-Returner) who will attain Nibbãna approaching one’s
lifespan in Suddhãvãsa.
(3) Anãgãmĩ (a Non-Returner) who will attain Nibbãna with great effort.
(4) Anãgãmĩ (a Non-Returner) who will attain Nibbãna easily without effort.
(5) Anãgãmĩ (a Non-Returner) who will be born in any realm of Suddhãvãsa
and will be promoted respectively until reaching the highest one called Akanitฺtฺhã
(realm of the highest or supreme Brahmas). Then, one will attain Nibbãna.
Mãtikã 130. Those are born in the Brahma world (e.g. Arũpãvacara-bhũmi
- formless plane) because of their Jhãna, such as the Buddha’s disciples.
They may attain Nibbãna on that plane when they finish their lifespan because they listen to his Dhamma.
Mãtikã 131. Happiness is defined in Buddhism, as follows:
- An ascetics’ happiness is more excellent than layman’s.
- Happiness arising from independence of sensual desire and pleasure
is more excellent than happiness arising from sensual pleasures.
- Happiness without defilements is more excellent than happiness mixed with defilements.
- Happiness without mental intoxication is more excellent than happiness with mental intoxication.
- Happiness without oriented materiality is more excellent than happiness with oriented materiality.
- A noble one’s happiness is more excellent than an ordinary person’s.
- Mental happiness is more excellent than physical happiness.
- Happiness in Jhãna without delightfulness is more excellent than happiness in Jhãna with delightfulness.
- Happiness from Upekkhã (the wisdom of concentration) is more excellent than happiness from pleasures.
- Happiness in concentration is more excellent than happiness outside
- Happiness in Jhãna without delightfulness as an object of consciousness in more excellent than happiness in Jhãna with delightfulness as an object of consciousness.
- Happiness from Upekkhã (the wisdom of concentration) as an object of consciousness in more excellent than happiness from pleasure as an object of consciousness.
- Happiness with formlessness as an object of consciousness is more excellent than happiness with form as an object of consciousness.
Mãtikã 132. The Lord Buddha said to the Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) that sensual pleasure happiness depends on the five sensual objects (Rũpa: visible object, Sadda: sound, Gandha: odour, Rasa: taste and Photฺtฺhabba: tangible object) in ordinary people. It is not of the Noble Ones; and he warned them not to become attached to this kind of happiness; but they should be aware of it.
Mãtikã 133. The Lord Buddha said to the Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) that those who are free from sensuality, evil action and achieve Jhãna – The four Jhãnas: Patฺhama-Jhãna (the First Absorption) and Dutiya-Jhãna (the Second Absorption), Tatiya-Jhãna (the Third Absorption) and Catuttha-Jhãna (the Fourth Absorption) gain happiness depending on independence from sensual desire and pleasure which suggests to progression to this due to its calming and enlightened happiness.
Mãtikã 134. The Buddha defined the happiness in Buddhism from a coarse to
the finest happiness, as follows:
(1) Sensually pleasant happiness is coarse, and it is for ordinary people. It is
mixed with suffering, and it is a short period of happiness, but it is long term suffering.
(2) A calm happiness is finer than sensually pleasurable happiness. It is the
happiness arising from the First Absorption.
(3) Contentment in concentration at the level of the Second Absorption
without thought conception and sustained thought is finer than the First Absorption.
(4) Contentment in concentration at the level of the Third Absorption without
joy is finer than the Second Absorption.
(5) Contentment in concentration at the level of the Fourth Absorption without
happiness is finer than the Third Absorption. It is blissful happiness where one is released from happiness, suffering, joy and sadness and gains wisdom with clear
mindfulness and consciousness called Upekkhã (wisdom of circumspection).
(6) Contentment in concentration at the level of the Fifth Absorption –
Ãkãsãnañcãyatana-Jhãna (absorption of the Formless Sphere: focusing on infinite space) is finer than the Fourth Absorption). It is apart from Rũpa-sañña (perception of form) where one eliminates Patฺigha-saññã (repulsion).
(7) Contentment in concentration at the level of the Sixth Absorption —
Viññãnฺañcãyatana-Jhãna (absorption of the Formless Sphere: focusing on infinite consciousness) is finer than absorption of infinite space.
(8) Contentment in concentration at the level of the Seventh Absorption —
Ãkiñcaññãyatana-Jhãna (absorption of the Formless Sphere: focusing on nothing) is finer than the absorption of infinite consciousness.
(9) Contentment in concentration at the level of the Eighth Absorption —
Nevasaññãnãsaññãyatana-Jhãna (absorption of the Formless Sphere: neither perception nor non perception) is finer than the absorption of nothing.
(10) The greatest contentment is Nirodhasamãpatti (attainment of extinction— cessation of Saññã (memory) and Vedanã (feeling). They are completely ceased and the greatest contentment is called Nibbãna.
Mãtikã 135. The Lord Buddha said to the Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) that those
who were born with Micchãditฺtฺhi (false views) would effect the destruction of the public. This kind of person will bring suffering to all celestials and human beings, and they will persuade people not to believe in the true Dhamma.
Mãtikã 136. The Lord Buddha said to the Bhikkhu (Buddhist monks) that those
who were born with Sammãditฺtฺhi (right View) would bring progress, benefit and happiness to the public. These kinds of persons will persuade people to believe in the true Dhamma. All celestials and human beings will take full advantage of it.
Mãtikã 137. It is impossible that human beings, animals, celestials and Brahma
gods who have Attã or Ãtman (an immortal self) can achieve Dhamma because it is Micchãditฺtฺhi (false view).
Mãtikã 138. The Lord Buddha defined the principles for judging an instruction so
that one should believe it or not. The advices on how to investigate a doctrine are, as follows:
(1) Do not believe it because it is a legend handed down from the past.
(2) Do not believe it because it is a tradition that one habitually does.
(3) Do not believe it because it is a rumor that is spread by anyone.
(4) Do not believe it because it is a quoted text or bible.
(5) Do not believe it because it is a logical guess.
(6) Do not believe it because it is an assumption or inference.
(7) Do not believe it because it is a possibility of appearance.
(8) Do not believe it because it is an agreement with a considered and
(9) Do not believe it because a speech seems reliable.
(10) Do not believe it just because of the idea that this is our teacher.
Mãtikã 139. According to a previous Mãtikã, the Lord Buddha suggested that one should consider a classified doctrine as follows:
(1) It is demeritorious or meritorious.
(2) It is disadvantageous or advantageous.
(3) A well-informed person condemns it or praises it.
(4) Its result causes suffering or happiness.
One should not practice and believe in doctrines that are classified as demeritorious, disadvantageous, condemned and causing suffering. However, one should practice and believe in doctrines that are classified as meritorious, advantageous, praise worthy and causing happiness.
Mãtikã 140. According to the 2 previous Mãtikã, those who practice and believe in the doctrines that are classified as meritorious, advantageous, praise worthy and causing happiness will be reassured about the following:
(1) It is reassuring that he or she will be born in heaven if a state of existence
and result of meritorious and demeritorious actions are true.
(2) It is reassuring that he or she will not take revenge and oppress anyone
and live happily in the present if a state of existence and result of meritorious and demeritorious action are not true.
(3) It is reassuring that he or she will not suffer because they do not make
demeritorious action if the demerit is true.
(4) It is reassuring that he or she will be pure without demeritorious action if
the demerit is not true.