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About Ecclesiastical Offences

Mãtikã 177. A Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ who offends Ãpatti, the disciplinary rules prescribed in Gantha Vinaya, must be punished accordingly for each violation of the disciplinary rules.
The offences are namely: Ãpatti Pãrãjika (Major Offences), Ãpatti Saṅghãdisesa (an offence entailing initial and subsequent meetings of the Saṅgha), Ãpatti Thullaccaya (a grave offence), Ãpatti Pãcittĩya (an offence entailing expiation or Minor Offences), Ãpatti Pãtฺidesanĩya (an offence to be confessed), Ãpatti Dukkata (an offence of wrong doing) and Ãpatti Dubbhãsita (an offence of wrong speech).

Mãtikã 178. If a Bhikkhu violates the disciplinary rule “Ãpatti Pãrãjika” (Major Offences), he must leave the monkhood. Because it is a grave offence involving expulsion from the monkhood, he is forbidden to be ordained again all his life. Any preceptor who ordains him without knowing that he had committed major offences,
if he is informed later, must force him to disrobe.

Mãtikã 179. If a Bhikkhu violates the disciplinary rule “Ãpatti Saṅghãdisesa” (an offence entailing initial and subsequent meetings of the Saṅgha), he does not leave the monkhood. He must confess to the offence and do penance for 6 nights. A confession must be made to any Bhikkhu on the day that he committed an offence against the disciplinary rules.
If a Bhikkhu commits the offence “Ãpatti Saṅghãdisesa” and conceals it, he will be put on probation (Parivãsa) for a period of time equal to the days that he concealed it before doing penance for 6 nights in order to be redeemed.
After he finishes doing penance for 6 nights, at least 20 monks need to recite the “Abbhãna”, so he will be redeemed.
If a Bhikkhunĩ commits the offence “Ãpatti Saṅghãdisesa”, she must confess the offence to both a Bhikkhu and a Bhikkhunĩ on the day that she committed it and does penance for 15 days.
The principles of being put on probation and doing recitations as a penalty for her offences are the same as a Bhikkhu’s.

Mãtikã 180. While a Bhikkhu who committed the offence “Ãpatti Saṅghadisesa” is on probation (Parivãsa) in order to compensate for offence concealment and doing penance, he must perform the following until completing his penalty.
(1) Sahavãso (habitual place prohibition) Living in a monk lodging is
prohibited such as a Kutฺĩ (an abode of a Buddhist monk), a house, a Sãlã (multipurpose hall), a cottage and a shelter, etc.
(2) Vippavãso (being alone prohibition) Being alone without ordinary Bhikkhu
(at least one Bhikkhu) is prohibited.
(3) Anãrocanã (surrounding area limitation) If there is an ordinary Bhikkhu
from other places passing by 2 ledฺdฺupãta (100 meters) away from the Bhikkhu in the surrounding area, the offender must inform him of being on either prohibition or doing penance.
If the offender deliberately disregards only one of the above items, he must start
probation or doing penance again according to his commitment and penalty.

Mãtikã 181. The offender who is being punished because of Ãpatti Saṅghãdhisesa and commits offences against the disciplinary rules again must start punishment according to the period of penalty. If he commits an offence again during probation, he must start probation again. If he commits an offence while doing penance, he must do penance again. When finishing the punishment, at least 20 monks will recite the “Abbhãna” in order to make him innocent.

Mãtikã 182. During punishment, an offender of Ãpatti Saṅghãdhisesa is obliged to have an ordinary Bhikkhu near the area where he is on probation and doing penance.
If he is on probation (Parivãsa), there must be at least one Bhikkhu; otherwise, it is not complete.
If he is doing penance, there must be at least four Bhikkhu; otherwise, it is not complete.

Mãtikã 183. If there are a lot of monks and people meeting near the area of punishment, the offender of Ãpatti Saṅghãdhisesa cannot inform every person that he is on probation and doing penance. He is allowed to stop doing it temporarily and continue doing it when circumstances in the surrounding area return to normal.

Mãtikã 184. Ãpatti Thullaccaya (grave offences) is less serious than Ãpatti Pãrãjika (Major Offences) and Ãpatti Saṅghãdhisesa (an offence entailing an initial and subsequent meeting of the Saṅgha). A Bhikkhu tries to violate the disciplinary rules (Ãpatti Pãrãjika and Ãpatti Saṅghãdhisesa), but the offence is not complete. This violation is considered to be Ãpatti Thullaccaya (a grave offence). If a Bhikkhu commits this offence, he must confess the offence by condemning oneself to other monks in order to be redeemed.

Mãtikã 185. It is prohibited to cut off one’s Aṅgajãta (penis). If doing so, that Bhikkhu commits a grave offence (Ãpatti Thullaccaya).

Mãtikã 186. Ãpatti Pãcittĩya (an offence entailing expiration) is minor offence. If either Bhikkhu or Bhikkhunĩ commits this offence, he or she must confess it by condemning oneself to other monks and nuns.
There are 2 categories of minor offence:
(1) Ãpatti Nissaggiya-Pãcittĩya (an offence entailing expiration with forfeiture)
concerns about something that is possessed. If a Bhikkhu commits an offence against the disciplinary rules (dependence on materials), he must forfeit that thing before he confesses to the offence.
(2) Ãpatti Suddhika-pacittĩya (generally called Pãcittĩya) is minor offence. It
concerns an offender’s wrongdoing or dependence on materials. If a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ has done something against the rules, he or she must confess to it. If they commit an offence against the rule of dependence on materials, they must forfeit, or destroy that thing before they confess to the offence.

Mãtikã 187. Ãpatti Pãtฺidesaniya (an offence to be confessed) is less serious. If either a Bhikkhu or Bhikkhunĩ commits this offence, he or she must confess it by condemning oneself to other monks and nuns in order to be redeemed.

Mãtikã 188. Ãpatti Dukkatฺa (an offence of wrongdoing) is less serious. Any Bhikkhu who commits this offence must confess to it by condemning oneself to other monks in order to be redeemed.

Mãtikã 189. Ãpatti Dubbhãsita (an offence of wrong speech) is a subset of Ãpatti Pãcittĩya (Minor Offence). In cases of violating the second disciplinary rule (saying wrong speech). Any Bhikkhu who commits this offence must confess to it by condemning oneself to other monks in order to be redeemed.

Mãtikã 190. When confessing to the offences by condemning oneself to other monks, the offender must find a confessor (a pure Bhikkhu) to be informed of the violation by means of paying respect by making the five-point prostration (Abhivãda) and confess to the disciplinary rule that he violated.
The offender of less serious offences (Ãpatti Thullaccaya - a grave offence, Ãpatti Nissaggiya-pãcittĩya - an offence entailing expiation with forfeiture, Pãcittĩya -minor offence, Ãpatti Pãtฺidesanĩya - an offence to be confessed, Ãpatti Dukkatฺa - an offence of wrong doing and Ãpatti Dubbhãsita - an offence of wrong speech) must pay respect to a confessor by making the five-point prostration 3 times and uttering Palĩ words, as follows:
If the offender is a junior (holds a low rank in the rainy season; vassã), he will say, as following:
Junior says: Sabbã tã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã tã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã tã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã garulahukã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã garulahukã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã garulahukã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Ahaṅ bhante sambahulã Nãnãvatthukãyo ãpattiyo ãpajjiṅ tã tumhu mũle patฺidesemi
Senior says: Passasi ãvuso tã ãpattiyo
Junior says: Ukãsa ãma bhante passãmi
Senior says: Ấyatiṅ ãvuso saṅvareyyãsi
Junior says: Sãdhu sutฺtฺhu bhante saṅvarissãmi
Dutiyampi Sãdhu sutฺtฺhu bhante saṅvarissami
Tatiyampi Sãdhu sutฺtฺhu bhante saṅvarissãmi
Na punevaṅ karissãmi
Na punevaṅ bhãsissãmi
Na punevaṅ cintayissãmi

If the offender is a senior, he says
Senior says: Sabbã tã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã tã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã tã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã garulahuã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã garulahukã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Sabbã garulahukã ãpattiyo ãrocemi
Ahaṅ ãvuso sambahulã Nãnãvatthukãyo ãpattiyo ãpajjiṅ tã tuyhu mũle patฺidesemi
Junior says: Ukãsa passatha bhante tã Ãpattiyo
Senior says: Ãma ãvuso passãmi
Junior says: Ãyatiṅ bhante saṅvareyyãtha
Senior says: Sadhu sutฺtฺhu ãvuso saṅvarissãmi
Dutiyampi sãdhu sutฺtฺhu ãvuso saṅvarissãmi
Tatiyampi sãdhu sutฺtฺhu ãvuso saṅvarissãmi
Na punevaṅ karissãmi
Na punevaṅ bhãsissãmi
Na punevaṅ cintayissãmi

If there are two offenders who want to confess to the disciplinary rules that they violated, they will utter the same utterance according to their length of monkhood (Vassã) by taking turns being a confessor.

Mãtikã 191. If the two offenders violated the same disciplinary rule, and they did the same action together, (calld Sabhãgãpattĩ) one of them could confess to another monk who did not commit the offence first. Then, he can be a confessor. They are forbidden to confess the offence to each other.

Mãtikã 192. Bhuddhaparisã (the Buddhist assembly) means a group people who take refuge in the Triple Gems, paying respect in order to achieve Dhamma.

Mãtikã 193. Bhuddhaparisã (the four assemblies of Buddhists) must follow the prescript as disciplinary rules differently, as follows:
(1) Bhikkhu-Parisã (the assemblies of monks) must possess 227 disciplinary
rules plus countless precept rules of the Order). Sãmanฺera (a male novice) must possess 10 disciplinary rules.
(2) Bhikkhunĩ-Parisã (the assemblies of nuns) must possess 311 disciplinary
rules plus countless precepts which are not prescribed by Pãtimokkha (the fundamental rules of the Order). Sãmanฺerĩ (a female novice) must possess 10 disciplinary rules, and Sikkhamãnã (a female novice undergoing a probationary course of two years) must possess 6 disciplinary rules through two years without violation of any rules.
If she offends any rules during the two years, she must start possessing the
rules for 2 years before receiving a higher ordination.

(3) Upãsaka-Parisã (Laymen) must possess 5 disciplinary rules, and should
possess the Uposatha (the Eight Precepts observed by lay-followers on Uposatha days).
(4) Upãsikã-Parisã (Laywomen) must possess 5 disciplinary rules, and should
possess the Upasatha (the Eight Precepts observed by lay-followers on Uposatha days) like Upãsakã.

Matka 194. Sikkhamãnã must possess the following disciplinary rules for 2 years before she will be ordained to be a Bhikkhunĩ.
(1) Refraining from killing animals or ordering someone to kill them.
(2) Refraining from stealing or ordering someone to do so.
(3) Refraining from committing sexual intercourse.
(4) Refraining from lying.
(5) Refraining from drinking liquor.
(6) Refraining from eating during vikãla (afternoon and night).

Mãtikã 195. Bhikkhunĩsṅgha (Buddhist nuns) must possess Garudhamma (the eight strict conditions to be observed by a Buddhist nun throughout her life), as follows:
(1) Even though a Bhikkhunĩ has been ordained for 100 rainy seasons
(Vassã), she must pay respect to a Buddhist monk who has been ordained only for
1 day.
(2) A Bhikkhunĩ must not reside in a residence without monks.
(3) A Bhikkhunĩ must inquire about Uposathadivasa (the day on which the
Fundamental Rules of the Buddhist monks are recited), and she must follow the Saṅgha’s advice dealing with moral conduct during every bi-weekly recitation.
(4) During a rainy season (Vassãvãsa), a Bhikkhunĩ must give the
opportunity (Pavãranฺã) to both Bhikkhusaṅgha and Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha to speak of any offences or unbecoming behavior she has seen, heard or suspected to have been committed during the rains.
(5) When committing the offence “Ãpatti Saṅghãdisesa” a Bhikkhunĩ must
confess the offence to both Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ and does penance for 15 days.
(6) A Bhikkhunĩ, who is a preceptor, is responsible for taking Sikkhamãnã to
be ordained as a Bhikkhunĩ in the presence of Bhikkhusaṅgha and Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha.
(7) A Bhikkhunĩ does not curse Bhikkhu about any cases.
(8) A Bhikkhunĩ is not allowed to warn and instruct Bhikkhu, but they can
warn and instruct her.

Mãtikã 196. Bhikkhusaṅgha, Bhikkhunĩsaṅgha, Sãmanฺera and Sãmanฺerĩ must follow Buddhist Lent (Vassãvãsa) (from the first waning moon of the eight month to the fifteenth waxing moon of the eleventh month) every rainy season. This period is called Purimikã (the earlier period for keeping the rains).
If there is a year with an extra eight lunar month (Adhikamãsa), the Rains-Entry Day will be postponed to the following eight lunar month.
If a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ cannot find a residence within the first day of the rain-retreat, they are allowed to follow the Buddhist Lent one month late on the first waning moon of the ninth month. This period is called Pacchimikã (the later period for keeping the rains). They must dwell permanently at a suitable place throughout the three months of the rainy season. They are not allowed to begin the rain-residence after a month of the waning moon of the ninth month.
Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who keep to the late period of the Buddhist Lent must end the rains-residence on the fifteenth waxing moon of the twelfth month, and they cannot get advantages (Ãnisaṁsa) of rains-residence including they cannot participate in the Katฺhina ceremony (the annual robe-presentation ceremony). As a result, they cannot receive Katฺhina like any other Bhikkhu.

Mãtikã 197. There are 5 kinds of residences that Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ can reside in, as follows:
(1) Vihãra (a dwelling place for monks) or Kutĩvihãra (a monk’s lodging).
(2) Half-built shelters.
(3) A building.
(4) A walless building.
(5) A cave.

Mãtikã 198. Bhikkhu must reside only in a residence during Buddhist Lent. It is forbidden to possess 2 of the Dhutaṅga (Austere Practices), especially by means of tree-root-dweller’s practice and open-air-dweller’s practice.
They are allowed to reside in the following places during Buddhist Lent.
(1) Kutĩ (a monk’s lodging).
(2) A cave.
(3) Vihãra (a dwelling place for monks).
(4) A barn (If a barn is moved to another place, it is allowed to move into it).
(5) A group of wagons or carts.
(6) A boat.
They are not allowed to reside in the following places during Buddhist Lent.
(1) A hollow tree.
(2) A branch or a fork of a tree.
(3) An open-air place.
(4) A place without a seat or a place for sleeping.
(5) A coffin.
(6) A sunshade, umbrella-like tent or a cowboy’s tent.
(7) A jar.
Mãtikã 199. Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who follow Buddhist Lent should recite the solution, as follows:
“Imasmiṅ ãvãse imaṅ temãsaṅ Vassaṅ upemi”

Mãtikã 200. If there is a serious event during Buddhist Lent, Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ cannot continue to keep the rains-residence, and it is necessary to leave their places without Ãpatti Dukkata (an offence of wrongdoing) for the following reasons:
(1) Annoyance by vicious animals, being robbed, and one’s vihãra is burnt or
flooded.
(2) Lay-followers are robbed and move on to another place. Bhikkhu and
Bhikkhunĩ are allowed to follow them to a new place. If they are separated into 2 groups, Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ are allowed to follow the group with faith.
(3) Because of a lack of food and medicine or a lack of offerings. If Bhikkhu
or Bhikkhunĩ are in trouble, they are allowed to move on.
(4) If someone tempts Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ by means of property, they
are allowed to flee from that person.
(5) There is dissension among the Saṅgha, or there is someone trying to
disunite the Saṅgha. Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ are allowed to leave.

Mãtikã 201. Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ are forbidden to stay overnight at other places even for one night during Buddhist Lent. If they miss the rains-residence, they violate the disciplinary rule- Ãpatti Dukkatฺa (an offence of wrongdoing), and they cannot take advantage of (Ãnisaṁsa) and rains-residence; receiving Katฺhina (robe-offering) and Vassãvãsa are not counted.
If it is necessary to do business, they are allowed to stay not more than 7 days. It
is called Sattãhakaranฺĩ ya (business to be done within 7 days). When staying overnight at any place, they should return to their residence for a limited time of 7 days. If it is necessary to leave the rains-residence for very long, they must return to their place on the seventh day on each occasion. Sãmanฺera and Sãmanฺerĩ are permitted to stay overnight without doing Sattãhakaranฺĩ ya.

Mãtikã 202. Neither Bhikkhu nor Bhikkhunĩ who do not keep the rains-residence nor miss it, will be defective in Vassãvãsa, so the Vassã cannot be counted.
It is forbidden to include an imperfect Vassã when they want to compare their rank as a junior or senior; they want to count the number of rainy seasons (Vassã) to consider a Bhikkhu to be out of a preceptor’s instruction and for upgrading to a Thera (a senior monk).

Mãtikã 203. The number of rainy seasons (Vassã) is counted and defined by the rains-residence throughout 3 months. When counting Vassã in order to be judged who will be come senior, Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ are approved in the following ways:
(1) If a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ has equal Vassã, the ordination month will be
counted. The first one who is ordained is deemed senior and the later one is deemed junior. The junior must pay respect to the senior.
(2) If a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ is ordained in the same month, the ordination
date will be counted. The one who is ordained on the date before the other is considered to be senior. The later one is junior. The junior must pay respect to the senior.
(3) If a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ is ordained on the same day, the ordination
hour, minute or second will be counted. The first one who is ordained is senior, and the later one is junior. The junior must pay respect to the senior.
(4) If a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ is ordained at the same time, an ordination
announcement will be checked to judge their Vassã. The first one who inquired about qualification by Upajjhãya (a preceptor), Kammavãcãcariya (an Act-announcing Teacher) and Anusãvanãcariya (an ordination proclaiming teacher) is senior, and the later one is junior. The junior must pay respect to the senior.

Mãtikã 204. Those who want to be ordained as a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ must
attain 20 years of age.
If a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ has not attained 20 years, he or she is allowed to
counted the term of pregnancy of 6 months.

Mãtikã 205. Only one person can be ordained in an ordination ceremony.
However, two or these persons can be ordained together at the same time (not more than 3 persons). If there are two or three persons in the ordination ceremony, they must have the same Upajjhãya (preceptor), and there must be a motion and proclamation recitation at the same time.

Mãtikã 206. An Upajjhãya (preceptor) is responsible for the following:
(1) Checking Parikkhãra (the eight requisites of a Buddhist monk).
(2) Checking the age of a person who will be ordained as a Bhikkhu.
(3) Presenting the person who will be ordained to a community of the Saṅgha.
(4) Shaving the head, including mustache and beard.
(5) Preliminarily informing the person of Tacapañcakakammatฺtฺhãna (the
subject for meditation comprising the five constituents ending with the skin).
(6) Informing the person of the bowl and the three robes (Ticĩvara).
(7) Advising on means of support during monastic life and one’s obligations
after becoming a Bhikkhu (Anusãsana 8).
(8) Informing the person of specific ordination time to identify it on monkhood
certification.

Mãtikã 207. Anusãsana 8 in Mãtikã 206(7) is Nissaya 4 (that on which anything depends) and Akaranฺĩyakicca 4(deeds which should not be done).
(1) Nissaya 4 means the four necessities of the ordained. There are four means of support on which monastic life depends, as follows:
- The three robes are worn.
- Food obtained by going on alms-gatherings.
- Dwelling at the foot of a tree.
- Medicines pickled in state urine.
(2) Akaranĩyakicca 4 means the principle obligations which Bhikkhu and
Bhikkhunĩ must not violate. Anyone who violates them must leave the monkhood. The following actions are considered to be Akaranฺĩyakicca.
- Having sexual intercourse.
- Stealing someone’s property which is worth at least 5 Masaka
(5 Masaka = 1 baht).
- Killing a human being.
- Flattering oneself that one is a noble one, achieving the Noble Path
or meditative attainment, except if it is true and he informs the Holy monks without showing off, or he is mistaken.
There are additional Akaranฺĩyakicca for Bhikkhunĩ, as follows:
- Having sensual pleasures and permitting a man to touch one’s body.
- Concealing an other Bhikkhunĩ’s offence: Ãpatti Pãrãjika (Major
Offences).
- Joining up with a Bhikkhu who was punished by leaving the community
of the Saṅgha. If the Saṅgha recites a declaration warning the Bhikkhunĩ not to join up with that Bhikkhu more than 3 times, she will commit an offence: Ãpatti Pãrãjika (Major Offences).
- Touching a man’s body with pleasure, finally, lying down for sexual
conduct.

Mãtikã 208. Those who will be ordained recite to take refuge in the Triple Gems,
as follows:
Bhuddhaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi
Dhammaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi
Saṅghaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi
Dutiyampi Bhuddhaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi
Dutiyampi Dhammaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi
Dutiyampi Saṅghaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi
Tatiyampi Bhuddhaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi
Tatiyampi Dhammaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi
Tatiyampi Saṅghaṅ saranaṅ gacchãmi

The recitation to take refuge in the Triple Gems has been used in an ordination
ceremony called Tisaranฺagamanũpasampadã since Buddhism began and later was cancelled. It changed into an ordination ceremony for novices instead.

Mãtikã 209. The ordination called ÑatticatutthaKammavãcã is conducted by the Saṅgha (a community of not less than five Buddhist monks), and there are factors, as follows:
(1) There must be an Upajjhãya (preceptor).
(2) There must be a Kammavãcãcariya (Act-announcing Teacher) and an
Anusãvanãcariya (ordination proclaiming teacher). They are responsible for chanting the formal words of an act and asking for a resolution.
(3) The ordination ceremony must take place in a Buddhasĩmã (boundary
established by the Saṅgha).
(4) At least 10 Buddhist monks assemble in an ordination ceremony (in a
city).
(5) At least 5 Buddhist monks assemble in an ordination ceremony (in a
rural area).

Mãtikã 210. The Ñatticatutthakammavãcã Ordination is a method used to ordain Bhikkhu now. It consists of chanting a motion (Ñatti) four times.
The first time is chanting a motion approved by the Saṅgha committee.
Then, chanting 3 times asking for a resolution voting for agreement or disagreement.
If there is no Bhikkhu refusing ordination during the four-time chanting, the ordained person will become a Bhikkhu when the chanting ends with the word “Sobhãseyya” said at the third time.
While the Kammavãcãcariya (an Act–announcing Teacher) and the Anusãvanãcariya (an ordination proclaiming teacher) are chanting, any Bhikkhu can refuse the ordination. It resulting in an incomplete ordination, so the ordained person is not completely a Bhikkhu (not a Full Admission to the Saṅgha).

Mãtikã 211. The Ñatticatutthakammavãcã Odination is divided into 2 groups:
(1) Aesãhaṅ Ordination.
(2) Ukãsa Ordination.

Mãtikã 212. A Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ who enters a monkhood with Full
Admission to the Saṅgha equal rights and responsibilities to other Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ in the same Gantha Vinaya.

Mãtikã 213. Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who keep rains-residence throughout 3
months can get advantages (Ãnisaṅsa), as follows:
(1) They can leave a monastery for other places without asking for permission of Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who are at the monastery.
(2) They can stay without one of three robes (Ticĩvara).
(3) They are allowed to eat with other Bhikkhu (Ganฺabhojana) and receive
food later (Paramparabhojana).
(4) They can receive a new robe without determining if a robe has two
owners.
(5) If there are robes made during Civarakãla (the time of cutting and sewing
Buddhist monk’s robes), they will get equal shares.
The period of getting advantages is one month, from the first waning moon of the
eleventh month to the fifteenth waxing moon of the twelfth month. If a Bhikkhu receives Katฺhina (post-lent robe offering) during the getting advantage month, the period of getting advantages is extended for 4 months, from the first waning moon of twelfth month to the fifteenth waxing moon of the fourth month.

Mãtikã 214. Civarakãla or Civarakãra is a period of time of cutting and sewing
Buddhist monk’s robes. Bhikkhu are allowed to cut and sew their robes for one month, from the first waning moon of the eleventh month to the fifteenth waxing moon of the twelfth month.
If a lot of Bhikkhu finish cutting and sewing any robe, they all offer this robe to
any monk for his personal use, and the rest of the monks show their approval and congratulations (Anumodanã).

In this case, monks who show their approval and congratulations also receive
advantages of Katฺhina. The period of time of cutting and sewing robes is extended for 4 months until the fifteenth waxing moon of the fourth month.

Mãtikã 215. An adherent of another religion or a non-Buddhist who wants to be
ordained must be put on probation (Parivãsa) for 4 months or a period of time that pleases the Saṅgha who allows him to ordain.

Mãtikã 216. A Bhikkhu who has been ordained for at least 5 Vassã will reduce
instruction and training by Upajjhãya (a preceptor) or Ãcariya (a teacher). A Bhikkhu who gains 5 Vassã can be out of a teacher’s control (Nissayamuttaka) unless he is a fool who cannot take refuge in the Dhamma by himself. As a result, he must be instructed and trained all his life.

A Bhikkhu who is out of the teacher’s control is called Majjhima. (an intermediate monk )
Mãtikã 217. Any Bhikkhu who gains at least 10 Vassã (at least 10 years standing) is promoted to Thera (a senior monk).

Mãtikã 218. A Bhikkhu’s instruction and training by an Upajjhãya (preceptor)
can cancel because of the following reasons:
(1) The Upajjhãya (preceptor) leaves for other places.
(2) The Bhikkhu leaves the monkhood or disrobes.
(3) The Bhikkhu died.
(4) The Bhikkhu is converted to another religious belief.
(5) The Upajjhãya (preceptor) compels the Bhikkhu to leave.

Mãtikã 219. A Bhikkhu’s instruction and training by an Ãcariya (teacher) can be cancelled because of the following reasons:
(1) The Ãcariya (a teacher) leaves for other places.
(2) The Bhikkhu leaves the monkhood or disrobes.
(3) The Bhikkhu dies.
(4) The Bhikkhu is converted to another religious belief.
(5) The Ãcariya (teacher) goes to be instructed and trained by an Upajjhãya
(former preceptor).

Mãtikã 220. “KãrakaSaṅgha” means a monk or a chapter of monks who are assigned to perform deeds which deal with the Saṅgha’s activities or ceremonies.
One monk, a chapter of monks (2-3 monks) or the Saṅgha (community of at least 4 monks) are assigned to succeed in doing affairs according to each activity.

Mãtikã 221. The numbers of monks who are assigned to perform deeds according to each activity are, as follows:
(1) At least 5 monks are assigned to succeed in doing an ordination ceremony
in a rural area.
(2) At least 10 monks are assigned to succeed in doing an ordination
ceremony in a city.
(3) At least 5 monks are assigned to succeed in receiving Katฺhina
(post-lent offering).
(4) At least 4 monks are assigned to succeed in putting an offender on
probation (Parivãsa).
(5) At least 20 monks are assigned to succeed in taking care of an offender
who is doing penance (Mãnatta).
(6) At least 20 monks are assigned to succeed in recitation for an offender’s
rehabilitation after he finishes doing penance(a recitation is called “Abbhãna”).
(7) At least 4 monks are assigned to succeed in a confined boundary.
(Sammutisĩmã)
(8) The number of monks is not specified for the bi-weekly recitation of the
Vinaya rules by a chapter of Buddhist monks (Uposatha), making a wish on the occasion of the rains-residence and the ecclesiastical ceremony at the end of rains retreat. The available monks are responsible for the affairs.

Mãtikã 222. An Upajjhãya (preceptor) must gain at least 10 Vassã (at least 10 years standing) and must be nominated by a community of the Saṅgha.

Mãtikã 223. An Upajjhãna (preceptor) takes a person who will be ordained (Upasampadãpekkha) among the Saṅgha at any boundary, and informs him of the subject for meditation comprising the five constituents ending with the skin, inform him of the bowl and the robes and giving an advice.

Mãtikã 224. An Upasampadãpekkha means an applicant for ordination as a Bhikkhu or a Bhikkhunĩ in Buddhism (Upasampadã). An Upajjhãya (preceptor) is forbidden to ordain an applicant with the following defects:
(1) Leprosy.
(2) Small pox, abscesses on the neck, syphilitic eruptions of the neck and
kinds of severe pustules.
(3) Ringworm or eczema.
(4) Pulmonary Emphysema.
(5) Be in debt.
(6) Be a slave.
(7) Be a robber who is sentenced to death.
(8) Be exiled from the country.
(9) Be wounded by a hot iron pressed to the face.
(10) Not allowed to be ordained by one’s mother.
(11) Not attained 20 years of age.
(12) Not a human being.
(13) Be a Homosexual.
(14) Used to be ordained and converted to another religious belief.
(15) Committed Patricide.
(16) Committed Matricide.
(17) Killed of an Arahant.
(18) Used to provoke the Saṅgha into splitting up.
(19) Be a hermaphrodite ( has two sexual organs)
(20) Ordained oneself.
(21) Be an animal.
(22) Be a nun who committed sex abuse.
(23) Injured the Lord Buddha.

Mãtikã 225. An Upajjhãya (preceptor) should not ordain (Pabbajjã) a person to be a Samãnฺera (novice) with the following defects:
(1) Has an amputated hand (hands), is missing a hand (hands).
(2) Has an amputated foot (feet), is missing a foot (feet).
(3) Has limbs amputated, is missing both hands and feet.
(4) Is missing an ear (ears).
(5) Has an impaired nose.
(6) Is both missing an ear (ears) and has an impaired nose.
(7) Has an impaired finger (fingers).
(8) Has an impaired thumb.
(9) Has impaired tendon in the foot (feet).
(10) Has webbed fingers.
(11) Has a crooked back.
(12) Is vertically challenged (not very tall).
(13) Has a neck goiter.
(14) Has been wounded by a hot iron to a face because of punishment.
(15) Has been wounded by a whip because of punishment.
(16) Has an arrest warrant notifying of a death sentence.
(17) Has a foot goiter.
(18) Has an illness which cannot be cured because of Kamma (an evil
action).
(19) Has a detective figure causing harm to the Saṅgha.
(20) Is blind in one eye or blind.
(21) Is totally disabled (unable to take care of oneself).
(22) Is disabled (walking with an instep).
(23) Is paralyzed.
(24) Has no energy.
(25) Is old and is disabled.
(26) Is blind by birth.
(27) Is dumb.
(28) Is deaf.
(29) Is both blind and dumb.
(30) Is both blind and deaf.
(31) Is both dumb and deaf.
(32) Is blind, dumb and deaf.
Any preceptor ordains (Pabbajjã) a defective person mentioned in the listed
items above, he will offend the disciplinary rule of Ãpatti Dukkata (an offence of wrongdoing).
The ordination of a novice (Pabbajjã) is conducted before a full ordination
(Upasampadã). If a person is not qualified to be ordained as a novice, he will not be permitted to take up the Bhikkhuship.

Mãtikã 226. Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ will be punished because of the following
behavior:
(1) Frequently quarrel with somebody causing Adhikaranฺa (case of dispute)
among the Saṅgha.
(2) Often commits offences against the disciplinary rules and behaves badly.
(3) Is on familiar terms with householders in an inappropriate way causing
failure to undertake precepts (Sĩla-Vipatti), conduct (Ãcãra-Vipatti) and view (Ditฺtฺhi-Vipatti).
(4) Blame the Lord Buddha, the Dhamma (doctrine) and the Saṅgha. The
punishment for the above behavior is Tajjaniya-Kamma (the formal act of censure). The Saṅgha threatens wrongdoers by warning them of their wrongdoings, and subdues them. If they continue doing so, they must be punished according to their guilt.

Mãtikã 227. Niyasa-Kamma (the formal act of subordination) is an act of punishing Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who frequently commits offences against the disciplinary rules, have no manners and are on familiar terms with householders in an inappropriate way. Wrongdoers will be punished by deposition. Then, they must return to undertake the Nissaya (the four necessities of the ordained) again.

Mãtikã 228. Tajjaniya-Kamma (the formal act of censure) is an act which the Saṅgha performs as Saṅghakamma (an act or ceremony performed by a chapter of Buddhist monks assembled in solemn conclave). The act is conducted by the Saṅgha (a community of not less than four Buddhist monks) by means of Ñatticatutthakammavãcã consisting of the following:
(1) Is performed in presence of a Bhikkhu (the wrongdoer).
(2) Inquire and investigate a Bhikkhu.
(3) Listen to a statement that a Bhikkhu made.

Mãtikã 229. PabbãjanĩyaKamma (the act of banishment) is an act of punishing Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who always behave badly until the information is talked about and spread including behaving obscenely, obliterating a Buddhist motion and earning one’s living in a deceitful way. Wrongdoers will be punished by being expelled from the community of the Saṅgha and the monastery.
According to the first paragraph, the act is conducted by means of Tajjanĩya-Kamma and Ñatticatutthakammavãcã.

Mãtikã 230. PatฺisãranฺĩyaKamma (the formal act of reconciliation) is an act of punishing Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who commit offences against householders in a detrimental way. Wrongdoers must apologize for their wrongdoing and they are reconciled.
Wrongdoers cause harm to a householder in the following ways:
(1) Endeavour to make a householder lose luck.
(2) Endeavour to cause damage to a householder.
(3) Endeavour to expel a householder.
(4) Curse a householder.
(5) Incite householders to separation.
(6) Blame on the Lord Buddha.
(7) Blame on the Saṅgha.
(8) Accept a householder’s invitation but do not perform as requested.

Mãtikã 231.Ukkhepanĩyakamma (the formal act of suspension) is an act of punishing Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who behave badly. The wrongdoers are ostracized by the Saṅgha performing as Saṅghakamma. They are forbidden to associate with other monks.
The bad behaviors are, as follows:
(1) The wrongdoer does not accept that he committed offences against the disciplinary rules.
(2) The wrongdoer does not confess to an offence.
(3) The wrongdoer does not give up evil views.
(4) The wrongdoer commits detrimental behavior.

Mãtikã 232. Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunĩ who are punished by means of Tajjaniya-kamma, Niyasa-kamma, Pubbãjanĩya-kamma, Patฺisãranฺĩya-kamma and Ukkhepanĩyakamma have no rights of the following:
(1) One who is a preceptor is forbidden to ordain a Bhikkhu.
(2) One who is a teacher is forbidden to guide and train a Bhikkhu.
(3) A Sãmanฺera is not permitted to serve the wrongdoers.
(4) The wrongdoer is not nominated as a teacher to teach Bhikkhunĩ.
(5) If the wrongdoer was nominated as a teacher, he is not permitted to teach
Bhikkhunĩ.
(6) If the wrongdoer was punished because of any offence, he must not
break the same disciplinary rules again.
(7) It is forbidden to commit the same offence.
(8) It is forbidden to commit an offence which is more serious than before.
(9) It is forbidden to blame the Saṅgha’s actions towards oneself.
(10) It is forbidden to blame the Saṅgha’s actions.
(11) Do not forbid the Uposatha to an ordinary Bhikkhu.
(12) Do not forbid an invitation to an ordinary Bhikkhu.
(13) It is forbidden to investigate other Bhikkhu.
(14) It is forbidden to accuse other Bhikkhu of offences.
(15) It is forbidden to ask for the opportunity to reprove other Bhikkhu’s
offences.
(16) It is forbidden to reprove other Bhikkhu’s offences.
(17) It is forbidden to find other Bhikkhunĩ guilty.
(18) It is forbidden to promote Bhikkhu leading to Adhikarana (a legal case;
question).

Mãtikã 233. The Pathãriya (Miracles) are, as follows:
(1) Iddhi-Pãtiฺhãriya (miracle of psychic power) is a marvelous concerned
with supernatural powers such as inserting into the ground, walking on water, etc. However, people who have no faith may believe in it because of Gandhãrivijjã. Bhikkhu should not perform this kind of miracle in public.
(2) Ãdesanãpãtฺihãriya (miracle of mind-reading) is a marvelous ability to
know what another person is thinking. However, people who have no faith may believe in it because of Manฺikavijjã. Bhikkhu should not perform this kind of miracle in public.
(3) Anusãsanĩpatฺihãriya (miracle of teaching) is a marvelous ability to teach
people to achieve Dhamma and attain results of practice on their own: the Threefold Training, the Four Meditative Absorptions and supernormal knowledge. Bhikkhu are permitted to perform this kind of miracle.
(4) Any Bhikkhu who performs the first two kinds of miracles is considered to
have committed an offence.

 
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