About the Lord Buddha
Mãtikã 20. The Lord Buddha is the great religious founder for human beings, divine beings and Brahma.
Mãtikã 21. The Lord Buddha takes the position of the supreme Dhamma commander and he shines the light of intellect for human beings who have false ideas (Avijjã) to give insight and become the ones who awake from magic and achieve Dhamma.
Mãtikã 22. The Lord Buddha originally was named Siddhatha. He was born in Kapilavatthu in the Sakka region. (Now in Nepal) His father’s name was Suddhodana and his mother’s name was Maha Maya. He was born at Lumbini Park on a full moon day in the sixth lunar month called Visãkha before the Buddhist era 80 years. He married Princes Yasodharã or Pimpa of Koliya and had one son named Rãhula.
The Lord Buddha at the age of 29 became an ascetic on the banks of the Anomã River in India. He searched for “Mokkhadham” (the Dhamma for Nibbãna) for 6 years before he became enlightened and became the great Buddhism founder under the Bo Tree on a full moon day in the sixth lunar month called Visãkha. He continued to teach the Buddhist doctrine for 45 years.
He died (Parinibbãna) under the two Raṅ Trees at Salavanodayãna, Kusinãrã City on a full moon day in the sixth lunar month. It was the beginning of the Buddhist era. It is amazing that the birth date, the enlightenment date and the death date fell on the same day, which is called Visãkhapũjã Day. Now, this day has been declared to be an important world day by UNESCO.
Mãtikã 23. The Lord Buddha is a great man with 32 main characteristics:
(1) He has feet with a flat sole.
(2) He has discus patterned soles.
(3) He has protruding heels.
(4) He has long and slender fingers and toes.
(5) His hands and feet are soft-skinned.
(6) He has netlike lines on his palms and soles.
(7) He is nimble on his conch-like feet and high raised ankles.
(8) He has taut calf muscles like an antelope.
(9) He can touch his knees without bending.
(10) His sexual organs are concealed.
(11) He has a bright and golden complexion.
(12) His skin is so fine that no dust can attach to it.
(13) His body hairs are separate with one hair per pore.
(14) His body hair is black and curls clock wise.
(15) He has a godlike upright stance.
(16) He has the seven convexities of the flesh -the seven convex surfaces on
both hands, both feet, both shoulders and his trunk.
(17) He has a chest like a lion’s.
(18) There is no hollow between his shoulders.
(19) The distance from hand-to-hand and head-toe is equal.
(20) He has a beautiful, round, and smooth neck.
(21) He has sensitive taste-buds.
(22) His jaw is like a lion’s.
(23) He has 40 teeth.
(24) His teeth are evenly spaced.
(25) His teeth are without gaps.
(26) He has crystal-like canine teeth.
(27) He has a soft long tongue.
(28) He has a voice like the great Braham with a tone like a heavenly bird.
(29) He has extremely black eyes.
(30) His eyes are bright like a new born cow’s.
(31) He has clockwise hair between his eyes-brows.
(32) His head is completely beautiful like a royal turban.
Mãtikã 24. The Lord Buddha’s First Sermon called Dhammacakkappavat- tanasutta was given to the five mendicants: Konฺdฺañña, Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahãnãma and Assaji. This is the first time that Dhamma was publicized called Pathฺamadesanã.
The contents of Dhammacakkappavattanasutta are about 2 provisions which should be followed by the ascetics who expect to achieve Dhamma.
(1) Abstention from sexual desire for extreme happiness.
(2) Abstention from the practice of extreme self-mortification.
The principle Dhamma consists of the path to Nibbãna that is Majjhimã Patipadã (the middle path) or Atฺtฺhangikamagga (Noble Eightfold Path) Ariyamagga in short.
Mãtikã 25. The following are Ariyamagga:
(1) Right Understanding – the intellectual understanding of the Noble Truths.
(2) Right Thought – to seek the way of being free from sensual pleasure.
(3) Right speech – pure speech, not to speak badly.
(4) Right Action – pure action, good behavior, not to make trouble.
(5) Right Livelihood – pure occupation, not to have a job that causes oneself and others trouble.
(6) Right Effort – effort to perform meritorious actions and abstain from evil actions.
(7) Right mindfulness – having self-consciousness of body, feeling, mind-perception and consideration of Dhamma used for elevating mind to be free from clinging.
(8) Right concentration – practice meditation to calm the mind from Nĩvaranฺa until it is pure and absorbed at the first to the eighth stage of holiness (absorption).
Mãtikã 26. The Lord Buddha’s First Sermon named Dhammacakkappavattasutta was given to the five mendicants at Asipatanamarukadãyavana, Bãrãnasĩ City on a full moon day in the eighth lunar month called Ãsãlฺahapũjã.
The result of the First Sermon made Konฺdฺaññã achieve Dhamma called the Eyes of Truth and attain the first stage of holiness. He was the first Stream-Entrant in Buddhism. The Lord Buddha exclaimed that “Añฺñã Si Vata Bho Konฺdฺañño” which means a person of insight so his new name was Aññakonฺdฺañña since then.
Mãtikã 27. Ãsãlahabũjã Day is the day which the Lord Buddha preached the First Sermon and the results of his Dhamma are the following:
(1) Dhammacakkappavattasutta is the First Sermon in Buddhism.
(2) The five mendicants were the first group who listened to the First Sermon.
(3) Aññãkonฺdฺañña was the first to achieve Dhamma and get the eyes of wisdom.
(4) Aññãkonฺdฺañña was ordinated to be the first Buddhist monk in Buddhism.
(5) The Triple Gems that are the Buddha, the Dhamma (doctrine) and the Saṅgha became complete in Buddhism for the first time.
(6) This day was the day that the Lord Buddha preached the sermon to
inhabitants of the earth for the first time.
Mãtikã 28. The Lord Buddha found the truth of life called Ariyasacca (the Four Noble Truths) by his own intellect.
Mãtikã 29. The Lord Buddha is the omniscience who knows all the truth of everything – the smallest element like atom and the universe in term of the world of object. In term of mind or soul, the Lord Buddha can perceive all living creatures in the state of existence (31 planes of existence). All living creatures have 121 different kinds of states of mind, Cetasika which has 52 different kinds and 28 elements of body.
Mãtikã 30. The Lord Buddha is the great wisdom called Paññãdhika.
Mãtikã 31. The Lord Buddha’s great wisdom consists of the 10 supreme intellectual powers of a Tathãgata called Dasabalañãṇa (the Ten Powers of the
Perfect One) as shown in the following.
(1) Thãnãthãna-ñãnฺa (knowledge of possibilities and impossibilities).
For example, it is impossible to practice insight meditation training (result) directly.
On the other hand, it is possible to practice tranquil meditation training (cause) according to the Noble Paths.
Another example is about sacrifice. It is impossible to sacrifice and pray for immortality to God.
(2) Vipãka-ñãnฺa-knowledge of the results of action (kamma). The Lord Buddha achieved insight into all living creatures’ merits and sins. The meritorious and demeritorious actions result in their life.
(3) Sabbatthagãminĩpatฺipadã-ñãnฺa (knowledge of the practice leading to all destinies and all goals). The Lord Buddha achieved insight into the way that leads all living creatures to be reborn in the cycle of rebirth - heaven, world, or hell for example: The one who respects and treat parents well, will be born in heaven but one who hurts or kills them will be born in hell.
(4) Nãnãdhãtu-ñãnฺa (knowledge of the world with its many different elements). The Lord Buddha gained insight of the truth of the world and all living creatures’ life which consists of 6 principle elements called Dhãtu:
- Pathavĩ-dhãtu (the earth-element) refers to the substance that can be
touched and cannot be touched ( a particular typed of liquid, solid or gas).
- Ãpo-dhãtu (the water-element) refers to the cohesive force that
combines the water element to stick together.
- Tejo-dhãtu (the fire-element) refers to temperature or heat which is the quality of the universe.
- Vãyo-dhãtu (the air-element) means the wind or the storm which blows.
- Ãkãsa-dhãtu (the space–element) means the air or the space which inserts in everything.
- Viññãna-dhãtu (consciousness-element) means souls and living creatures in the cycle of rebirth.
(5) Nãnãdhimuttika-ñãnฺa (knowledge of the different dispositions of beings). The Lord Buddha gained insight into the qualities and feature that make each person or each animal differ from others so it is impossible to force them into the same.
(6) Indriyaparopariyatta-ñãnฺa (knowledge of the inferiority and superiority of the controlling faculties of various beings). The Lord Buddha achieved insight into the beings’ potential of the sense-faculties which is not equal. It depends on their spiritual perfection achieved before. It is impossible to force them into Dhamma achievement at the same level.
(7) Jhãnãdisaṅkilesanussati-ñãnฺa (knowledge of defilement, cleansing and emergence in the cases of the meditation). The Lord Buddha achieved insight into beings’ pure mind, cleansed defilements because of Jhãna (state of serene contemplation attained by meditation), Samãdhi (concertration), Samãpatti (meditative attainments) and Vimokkha (liberation), and he knew of beings’ sorrow because of various defilements.
(8) Pubbenivãsãnussati-ñãnฺa (knowledge of the remembrance of former existences). The Lord Buddha achieved insight into his own countless former existences.
(9) Cutũpapãta-ñãnฺa (knowledge of the decease and rebirth of beings). The Lord Buddha achieved insight into all living creatures’ birth and death because of their meritorious and demeritorious action which results in the next state of existence.
(10) Ãsavakkhaya-ñãnฺa (knowledge of the destruction of defilement and craving). The Lord Buddha achieved insight into destruction of defilement in all living creatures’ mind including his own. He knew about all living creatures’ Dhamma achievement and how many states of existence they would be born or not.
Mãtikã 32. The Lord Buddha did the followings as daily routine.
(1) Meditative attainment at dawn to check whom would be taught to achieve Dhamma on that day.
(2) Alms-gathering and liberate mind-kind from suffering.
(3) Give a sermon to human beings in the evening.
(4) Advise Buddhist monk at dusk.
(5) Answer divine beings’ questions at midnight.
Mãtikã 33. The Lord Buddha’s true doctrine consists of 3 characteristics:
(1) Be impressed in the basic teachings.
(2) Be sonorous when at prayer.
(3) Come to a great conclusion.
Mãtikã 34. A Bhodhisattra (a Buddha-to-be) who was prophesied by one of the Buddhas to become enlightened and become a Lord Buddha in the future will be born to be not smaller than a skylark until he becomes enlightened according to the prediction.
Mãtikã 35. Buddhaguna (the virtue or character of the Buddha) means the qualities of the Lord Buddha which are comprised of a 9 characteristics:
(1) to be an Arahanta who has attained Nibbãna - dying free from defilement and craving.
(2) to be enlightened of the truth through his own intellect.
(3) to be full of transcendental wisdom, knowledge and perfect behavior.
(4) to go out to the public and be a great advantage.
(5) to know the truth of the world including living creatures’ dispositions.
(6) to be the great trainer of human beings. No one else can do this.
(7) to be the Great Master of all divine beings and human beings.
(8) to be the awakener from misunderstanding and foolishness and have a joyful mind in his own enlightened Dhamma.
(9) to be wise to classify Dhamma suitably based on the audiences’ disposition or temperament.
Mãtikã 36. The master is classified into 5 categories:
(1) Some masters don’t follow the rules of morality strictly, but they pledge that they will strictly follow them for the disciples. This kind of master just hopes to conceal his impure morality.
(2) Some masters don’t earn a pure livelihood, but they pledge that they will earn a pure one for the disciples. This kind of master just hopes to conceal his impure livelihood.
(3) Some masters don’t preach a pure sermon, but they pledge that they will preach a pure one to the disciples. This kind of master just hopes to conceal his impure sermon.
(4) Some masters don’t use a pure set of rules, but they pledge that they will use a pure one on the disciples. This kind of master just hopes to conceal his impure set of rules.
Mãtikã 37. The Lord Buddha is the great master who is pure in the following ways:
(1) The Lord Buddha said, “I have pure moral conduct and pledge that I will strictly follow the rules of morality, Disciples shouldn’t conceal my moral conduct”.
(2) The Lord Buddha said, “I earn a pure livelihood and pledge that I earn a pure one. Disciples shouldn’t conceal my livelihood”.
(3) The Lord Buddha said, “I preach a pure sermon and pledge to preach a pure one. Disciples shouldn’t conceal my sermon”.
(4) The Lord Buddha said “I use a pure set of rules and pledge to use pure ones. Disciples shouldn’t conceal my set of rules”.
(5) The Lord Buddha said “I achieved enlightened wisdom and I pledge to achieve pure insight. Disciples shouldn’t conceal my insights”.
Mãtikã 38. The Lord Buddha set forth the following items to the disciples for checking his purity.
(1) Check whether or not anyone encountered his misconduct in action, misconduct by speech and misconduct by mind.
(2) Check whether or not anyone encountered his good and bad actions together with his bodily actions, verbal actions and mental actions.
(3) Check whether or not anyone encountered his purity through his bodily actions, verbal actions and mental actions.
(4) Check whether or not anyone encountered his purity through his bodily actions, verbal actions and metal actions in a long or short period.
(5) Check whether or not anyone encountered damage to his reputation while
he was highly praised and honored.
(6) Check that he was not harmful because he had no sensual lust.
If the disciples check his purity, they will put their faith in the great master.
Mãtikã 39. The disciples respect the Lord Buddha for his personal qualities.
(1) He has perfect moral conduct.
(2) It’s marvelous that he preached the sermon for insight and reason, not misleading others.
(3) He has a wise intellect.
(4) He found the Noble Truths and showed them to the world.
(5) He revealed the ways to practice meditation to the disciples which are: Satipatthãna (the four Foundations of Mindfulness), Sammappadhãna (the four Great Efforts), and Iddhipãda (the four paths of accomplishment), Indriya (controlling the faculties), Bala (power), Bojjhaṅga (enlightenment factors), Ariyamagga (the Noble Eight fold Path), Vimokkha (the eight stages of release), Abhibhãyatana (special resistance), Kasinayatana (Kasina), and Jhãna (absorption). The results of practicing meditation make oneself achieve insight into the natural phenomenon of the body which is ordinarily impermanent and relates to viññãnฺa (consciousness), to disguise themselves as others, have supernatural powers e.g. the marvels of psychic powers, mind-reading, remembering, former lives divine hearing, divine sight and knowledge of births and deaths. Practicing meditation leads to extinction by means of concentration and the wisdom to eliminate passions.
Mãtikã 40. The Lord Buddha’s nibbãna implies that the one who dies without passion will not be reborn in a state of existence. Anyone who eliminates lust, hatred and delusion will leave one’s body in the last state of existence. It means that being without desire causes no suffering as an inflammable material causes no fire.
Mãtikã 41. The Lord Buddha meditated and progressed in Jhãna (the first-eighth absorption) in this sequence before he died. The progress of meditation is shown in the following:
(1) He did the meditation and progressed to the first absorption.
(2) He progressed to the second absorption.
(3) He progressed to the third absorption.
(4) He progressed to the fourth absorption.
(5) He progressed to the fifth absorption.
(6) He progressed to the sixth absorption.
(7) He progressed to the seventh absorption.
(8) He progressed to the eighth absorption.
(9) He progressed in the attainment of extinction.
(10) He moved back to the eighth absorption.
(11) He moved back to the seventh absorption.
(12) He moved back to the sixth absorption.
(13) He moved back to the fifth absorption.
(14) He moved back to the fourth absorption.
(15) He moved back to the third absorption.
(16) He moved back to the second absorption.
(17) He moved back to the first absorption.
(18) He progressed to the first absorption again.
(19) He progressed to the second absorption again.
(20) He progressed to the third absorption again.
(21) He progressed to the fourth absorption again.
(22) Then, he left the absorption, and he was extinct (died).
He was extinct (died) without clinging to both absorptions of the material sphere and the immaterial Sphere or the Form-Sphere and the formless sphere. It is complete extinction which is pure happiness.
Mãtikã 42. The Lord Buddha only spoke when it was beneficial.
(1) He delivered a speech which was true and useful. Even though it was true, it was useless for people. They were not pleased with it.
(2) A speech was true and useful, but people were not pleased with it. He selected and appropriate time to deliver it.
(3) He did not deliver a speech which was true or not true and useless, although people were pleased with it.
(4) A speech was true, useful and people were pleased with it. He selected an appropriate time to deliver it.
Mãtikã 43. The master should not be blamed. That is, the master is comprised of complete goodness and has disciples who are ordained as priests. They follow the rules of morality and practice meditation to progress in Jhãna (the first-fourth absorption.) If they get by chance insight into supernormal knowledge, this master should not be blamed by anyone because he is full of transcendental wisdom and perfect behavior.
Mãtikã 44. Buddhism will end when the following happens:
(1) There are no human beings who respect the Triple Gems.
(2) There are no doctrines or precepts left anymore.
(3) There are no disciples who are ordained as priests.
(4) There are no laymen and laywomen who follow the precepts anymore.
(5) There are no signs or evidence which show that Buddhism still remains.
(6) Human beings are not interested in the Dhamma.