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About Meditation

Mãtikã 234. The word “Samãdhi” (concentration) means the practical, melted or burnt mind to pureness without rust called Kilesa (defilement), Upakkilesa (mental defilement) or Nĩvaranฺa (hindrance) which causes the mind to be jumbled. A pure mind has an efficient and high power to get insight and understand the truth of the earth and life.

Mãtikã 235. When practicing meditation, one should concentrate on tranquility development first. Then, the result of training the mind leads to insight development.

Mãtikã 236. Tranquility meditation is a cause and insight meditation is a result. According to the Lord Buddha’s teachings, if people need the result, they must perform the cause first.

Mãtikã 237. The Lord Buddha forbids performing the insight meditation directly because it is impossible or too difficult to make a result for a result like getting a degree without learning.

Mãtikã 238. Tranquility meditation means the method or the principle that is an important base for complete concentration development. There are 40 methods for training the mind. On the other hand, insight meditation means the doctrine or the truth which is considered by the intellect for absolute understanding. There are 73 doctrines.

Mãtikã 239. Those who train their minds according to tranquility meditation get complete concentration in 3 levels, as follows:
(1) “Khanฺika-samãdhi” (momentary concentration) is the momentary concentrated mind even on working, learning, listening to a sermon, playing sports, etc. It is a condition in which all nerve senses are used altogether.
(2) “Upacãra-samãdhi” (approaching concentration) is the more meditative
mind which almost gets rid of defilement, and it nearly gets results in meditation,
but it does not progress in Jhãna (absorption).
(3) “Appanã-samãdhi” (attainment concentration) is the meditative mind which
is in the level of Jhãna. It starts in the first absorption and progresses to the second,
the third, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the seventh, the eighth, and extinction attainment which is the condition of mind burnt to reduce the defilement in each absorption, respectively.

Mãtikã 240. When people train their minds according to tranquility meditation until the mind becomes calm and progresses in Jhãna (which is stated above in Mãtikã 239(3) – Appanã-samãdhi), the mind gets the results of 3 meditative levels, and it is responsible for considering the truth of oneself within the 3 characteristics, as follows:
(1) “Suññata-samãdhi” (concentration on the void) is the mind in complete
meditation together with the wisdom to examine the empty space of oneself that is immortal called Anatta-Lakkhanฺa (soul-lessness.)
(2) “Animita-samãdhi” (concentration on the signless) is the mind in complete
meditation together with the wisdom to examine changes inside oneself and the instability of all aggregates. There is no sign that indicates the stability called
Anicca-Lakkhanฺa (impermanence.)
(3) “Appanฺihita-samãdhi” (concentration on the desireless) is the mind in
complete meditation together with the wisdom to examine the body and life of oneself depending on living factors – the condition that one has to seek for needed factors for survival all the times. It is a burden that one has to deal with through one’s life. The mind that commits to this situation is called Dukkha-Lakkhanฺa (suffering.)

Mãtikã 241. “Dhamma achievment bases on serene contemplation by meditative attainment.”

Mãtikã 242. The Lord Buddha said, “The end of intoxicants of passion depends on the first, the second, the third, and the fourth absorption, the realm of infinity space, the realm of infinity of consciousness, the realm of nothingness, and the realm of neither perception nor non–perception”.

Mãtikã 243. The Lord Buddha said “Whenever monks practice meditation and progress to the first absorption as quickly as snapping ones’ fingers only once. These persons do not stay far from Jhãna; follow the Lord Buddha’s teachings and exhortation, and dine alms of laymen usefully. It is not necessary to mention these kinds of persons.”
In other words, “the monks whose minds progress to the second, the third and the fourth absorption, as suddenly as stated precedingly, do not stay far from Jhãna; follow the Lord Buddha’s teachings and exhortation, and dine alms of laymen usefully. It is not necessary to mention stated kinds of persons.”

Mãtikã 244. Kasinฺa is one of the top ten tranquility meditations. It is used for trainings the mind to concentrate at the highest level of Jhãna – the eighth absorption. In this case, those who can progress to the eighth absorption achieve the doctrine until they are Anãgãmĩ (a Never–Returner) and Arahant (one who has attained Nibbãna.) They can also progress to Nirodha Samãpatti (Extinction of Suffering Attainment).

Mãtikã 245. When practicing meditation and progressing to the attainment of absorption at various levels, the condition of self ceases, as follows:
(1) The progressed mind to the first absorption ceases ones’ speech.
(2)The progressed mind to the second absorption ceases ones’ Vitakka
(thought conception) and Vicãra (discrimination).
(3) The progressed mind to the third absorption ceases one’s delightfulness.
(4) The progressed mind to the fourth absorption ceases one’s respiration.
(5) The Never-Returner or the Arahant’s progressed mind to the extinction
attainment ceases memory and feeling.

Mãtikã 246. “Kasinฺa” means an object used for training ones’ mind by means of tranquility meditation. This method of training is by gazing at a Kasinฺa device and closing the eyes alternatively. When recognizing the image, one can imagine the image while his eyes are closed. There are 10 Kasinฺa devices, as follows:
(1) “Patฺhavĩ” (the Earth Kasinฺa) is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing
at the earth which is provided from the clay, especially its color which looks like the color of the sunrise at dawn; in the shape of a circle with a diameter of about eleven inches. When practicing meditation, one has to repeat the word “Patฺhavĩ” or “earth” as a prayer while gazing at the device and closing one’s eyes to visualize the image.
(2) “Ãpo” (the Water Kasinฺa) is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing at
water in a container which has a diameter of about eleven inches. The water must be clear and clean and has no sludge. When practicing meditation, one has to repeat the word “Ãpo” or “water” as a prayer while gazing at the device and closing one’s eyes to visualize the image. When gazing at the water, one does not concentrate on the coldness of the water. In other words, one should concentrate on the characteristics of the water.
(3) “Tejo” (the Fire Kasinฺa) is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing at
a fire which is a big stack of pieces of firewood without smoke and a shower of sparks. A piece of wood or a mat which has a hole with a diameter of about eleven inches is placed in front of the bonfire. When practicing meditation, one has to gaze at the flame through the hole while the firewood is burning, just like a fire in a fireplace glowing up the chimney. One should focus only on the flame without seeing the ashes, the firewood, the charcoal and the smoke. While gazing at the flame and closing one’s eyes to visualize the image, one has to repeat the word “Tejo” or “fire” as a prayer without focusing on the heat of the fire. It is forbidden to gaze at the flame of a candle, the flame in a stove, a natural fire and the sun because they are defective devices.
(4) “Vãyo” (the Wind Kasinฺa) is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing at the wind which is blowing across the treetops, the leaves, the tops of the grass, the tops of the paddy in the field. The small pieces of cloth or paper which are blown by an electric fan are also used as the wind Kasinฺa device. When practicing meditation, one has to repeat the word “Vãyo” or “wind” as a prayer while gazing at the device and closing one’s eyes to visualize the image. He is suggested to focus on the wind that touches the body while they are gazing at the wind, too.
(5) “Nĩla” (the Green Kasinฺa) is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing at
some green cloth bound to an embroidered frame in the shape of a circle with a diameter of about eleven inches. The green Kasinฺa device is placed at eye-level away from the practitioner about 1 meter and 10 centimeters. When practicing meditation, one has to repeat the word “Nĩlaṅ” or “green” as a prayer while gazing at the green Kasinฺa device and closing one’s eyes to visualize the green image or any other colors depending on the practitioner’s ability to concentrate.
(6) “Lohita” (the Red Kasinฺa) is the method of training one’s mind by gazing
at some red cloth bound to an embroidered frame in the shape of a circle with a diameter of about eleven inches. The red Kasinฺa device is placed at eye-level away from the practitioner about 1 meter and 10 centimeters. When practicing meditation, one has to repeat the word “Lohitakaṅ” or “red” as a prayer while gazing at the red Kasinฺa device and closing one’s eyes to visualize the red image or any other colors depending on the practitioner’s ability to concentrate.
(7) “Pĩta” (the Yellow Kasinฺa) is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing at
some yellow cloth bound to an embroidered frame in the shape of a circle with a diameter of about eleven inches. The yellow Kasinฺa device is placed at eye-level away from the practitioner about 1 meter and 10 centimeters. When practicing meditation, one has to repeat the word “Pĩtakaṅ” or ” yellow” as a prayer while gazing at the yellow Kasinฺa device and closing one’s eyes to visualize the yellow image or any other colors depending on the practitioner’s ability to concentrate.
(8) “Odãta” (the White Kasinฺa) is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing
at some white cloth bound to an embroidered frame in the shape of a circle with a diameter of about eleven inches. The white Kasinฺa device is placed at eye-level away from the practitioner about 1 meter and 10 centimeters. When practicing meditation, one has to repeat the word “Odãtaṅ” or “white” as a prayer while gazing at the white Kasinฺa device and closing one’s eyes to visualize the white image or any other colors depending on the practitioner’s ability to concentrate.
(9) “Ãloka” (the Light Kasinฺa) is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing at
the light from a candle, a lamp or a flashlight. In the case of using a candle, it is placed in an alms-bowl where the lid has a hole to let the light shine out against the wall. When practicing meditation, one has to concentrate on the light and repeat the word “Ãloko” or “light” as a prayer while gazing at the light and closing one’s eyes to visualize the image.
(10) “Ãkãsa” (the Space Kasinฺa) is called “Viññãnฺa Kasinฺa” (the Consciousness
Kasinฺa) in the Buddhist scriptures. It is the method of training ones’ mind by gazing at the space in the air through a window or a round chimney. When practicing meditation, one has to repeat the word “Ãkãso” or “space” as a prayer while gazing at the space and closing one’s eyes to see the image of space.

Mãtikã 247. Ten kinds of Kasinฺa meditations focus on different objects and their images. The ways of practicing nine kinds of Kasinฺa is by gazing at an object except “Vãyo” (the Wind Kasinฺa), where a practitioner has to gaze at the blowing wind at the same time as focusing on the wind blowing against the body.
In all kinds of Kasinฺa there appear images, so practitioners should concentrate on the real images called Patibhãganimitta (or counterpart signs.) Kasinฺa meditation is the factor in gaining “Abhiññã” (ultra-conscious insight).
Nine kinds of these except Akãsa lead to Arũpajhãna (the four absorptions of the Formless Sphere). Practitioners who want to progress to Arũpajhãna have to practice one of them at the level of the fourth absorption before they can progress to Arũpajhãna. However, other methods of practicing meditation do not lead to Arũpajhãna, so Kasinฺa meditation is the original method of progressing to Jhãna, meditative attainment and ultra-conscious insight.

Mãtikã 248. “Asubha” (Unclean analytical meditation) means meditation where practitioners have to gaze continuously at a corpse. It is classified as one of the tranquility meditations. The method of this meditation is by staring at a corpse for a while. Then, close one’s eyes and try to imagine the image like in Kasinฺa meditation. The purpose of this method is to make the practitioners realize about the truth of life, their bodies and others’ bodies that are not beautiful, impermanent, immortal and finally die.
There are ten types of corpses for gazing at, as follows:
(1) The corpse that is about to swell.
(2) The corpse that is about to turn dull green.
(3) The corpse that is about to have lymph coming out of the body.
(4) The two-piece dismembered corpse.
(5) The corpse that was eaten by animals.
(6) The corpse that is scattered around the area.
(7) The corpse that is dismembered in pieces.
(8) The corpse that was executed and bled heavily around the area.
(9) The corpse where worms are burrowing in all parts.
(10)The corpse that has become a skeleton.
Gazing at the corpse, the gazer must not touch the corpse with his own hands.
When it is necessary to gather a scattered corpse together, one has to use a stick to collect it instead of his hands. It is forbidden to gaze at the corpse in the direction of the blowing wind. When gazing at it, the gazer should not sit too far or too close to it.

For this unclean analytical meditation, practitioners can imagine a real image
called Patฺibhãganimitta (or counterpart sign) and make the mind progress to the first absorption. However, they do not succeed for higher absorption.

Mãtikã 249. “Anussati Kammatฺtฺhãna” (the recollection of meditation exercises) means the use of consciousness for thinking of the various values of the meditation exercises that are marvelous, good teachings, and they are used for calming the mind.
There are 10 types of these recollections of meditation exercises, as follows:
(1) “Bhuddhãnussati” (recollection of the Lord Buddha) is the recall of the
Lord Buddha’s virtues, such as thinking that he has a pure mind without all defilements. He knows the truths of the world by his own intellect, and he has great wisdom and good behavior for he never exploits anybody, In addition, he is great benefit to the public. He also understands the world clearly comparable to none. Besides, he is the great trainer and master of all divine beings and human beings, especially; he can classify the Dhamma suitably, based on the audiences’ disposition or temperament. As a result, they can comprehend easily and learn it rapidly. This meditation exercise “Buddhãnussati” can elevate one’s mind to the level of Upacãrasamãdhi (approaching concentration), but it does not progress to any Jhãna (absorption).
(2) “Dhammãnusati” (recollection of the doctrine) is the recall of the virtues of
Dhamma, such as thinking of the doctrine that the Lord Buddha presented accurately. Those who practice their best will be manifested by their own intellect, especially when one can practice whenever one wants to and achieve results without time limit because it does not depend on time. Dhamma is provable, so people are invited to practice and prove their results by themselves. Dhamma is a worthy undertaking. It is for practicing by oneself because it is individually made known, and one can achieve results using one’s own intellect. However, this meditation exercise “Dhammãnussati” can elevate one’s mind to the level of Upacãrasamadhi (approaching concentration).It does not progress to any Jhãna (absorption).

(3) “Saṅghãnussati” (recollection of the Saṅgha) is the recall of the virtues of
this Saṅgha. In this case, Saṅgha means the disciples who are Ariyapuggala (The noble individuals).They are classified into 8 types: Sotãpattimagga (the Path of Stream- enterer); Sotãpattiphala (the Fruit of Stream-enterer); Sakadãgãmĩmagga (the Path of Once-Returner); Sakadãgãmĩphala (the Fruit of Once-Returner); Anãgãmĩmagga (the Path of Non-Returner); Anãgãmĩphala (the Fruit of Non-Returner); Arahattamagga (the Path of Arahantship) and Arahattaphala (the Fruit of Holy One).These disciples are called in brief “Ariyapuggala” (the four noble individuals) : Sotãpanna (a Stream-Enterer); Sokadãgamĩ (a Once-Returner); Anãgãmĩ (a Non-Returner) and Arahant (a Holy One).
The recall of the virtues of the Saṅgha refers to thinking of the disciples’ way of practice toward the extinction of all defilements and suffering. Because of their good conduct, they are respectful, suitably given offering and gifts and they are like a field of merit.
However, this meditation exercise “Saṅghãnussati” can elevate one’s mind to the level of Upacãrasamadhi (approaching concentration). It does not progress to any Jhãna(absorption).
(4) “Sĩlãnussati” (recollection of morality) is the recall of ones’ own morals by
reviewing the precepts and purity or deficiency of their own moral conduct.
The Buddhist monks, the Buddhist nuns, the male and female novices, the female novices undergoing a probationary course of two years, the laymen and the laywomen recall reviewing 227, 311, 6, 5 or 8 disciplinary rules, respectively.
The recollection of morality makes the practitioners recall the purity of their own moral conduct so that they feel delighted, brave and unsuspicious of Kamma that will result in the future. Besides, they are not careless to strictly keep rules of morality.
However, this meditation exercise “Sĩlãnussati” can elevate one’s mind to the level of Upacãrasamadhi (approaching concentration). It does not progress to any Jhãna (absorption).

(5) “Cãgãnussati” (recollection of liberality) is the recall of ones’ donation.
Practitioners release all objects and eliminate stinginess which is their defilements within the mind. This recall of liberality is the exploration that one can release external objects and defilements. As a result, they will know how their minds progress or stay still.
When practitioners recall the completeness of their charity, they will be overjoyed with their behavior, be cheerful and release attachments, so the mind will be gentle, light and bright. On the other hand, they will increase their donations if they review their deficiencies.
However, this meditation exercise, “Cãgãnussati”, can elevate one’s mind to the level of Upacãrasamadhi (approaching concentration). It does not progress to any Jhãna (absorption).
(6) “Devatãnussati” (recollection of heavenly beings) is the recall of ones’ own
virtue by raising god to be a witness. Practitioners recall their virtues that lead to being born as a god or a deity and review that how much they practice doing it. For example, one who is born as a heavenly being because of having faith in the Lord Buddha or the triple Gems, strictly keeping rules of morality, and offering alms to the Lord Buddha and the monks.
When ones recall one’s morality which lead one to be born as the god, one feels delighted and will not fear the death. After reviewing that, one practices fewer meditation exercises. One has to push oneself to do it.
However, this meditation exercise, “Devatãanussati”, can elevate one’s mind to the level of Upacãra-samadhi (approaching concentration). It does not progress to any Jhãna (absorption).
(7) “Moranฺãnussati” (mindfulness of death) is the meditation exercise of
contemplating death regularly. It is ones’ own mindfulness of death which ordinarily comes up against others and animals around the world.
Death always pursues human beings and animals. Nobody knows in advance about one’s own death. The recall of death makes youths rush to make merit without carelessness.
However, this meditation exercise, “Moranฺãnussati”, can elevate one’s mind to a level of Upacãrasamadhi (approaching concentration). It does not progress to any Jhãna (absorption).
(8) “Kãyagatãsati” (reflection or contemplation on the body) is the meditation
exercise of contemplating on the 32 impure parts of the body in order to realize that one’s body is always dirty and ugly. For example, the hair is dirty and smells bad if one does not shampoo it. One’s eyes, nose, mouth including teeth, has wastes, so one must clean them everyday. Although one cleans one’s teeth and washes one’s mouth, one still has odors.
When practicing meditation exercises, practitioners recall and consider all parts of the body consciously. As a result, they will understand the truth of their own bodies and others. Finally, they are not infatuated with the body.
This meditation exercise, “Kãyagatãsati”, can elevate one’s mind and progress to Patฺhamajhãna (the first absorption), but it does not progress to a higher one.
(9) “Ãnãpãnasati” (mindfulness on breathing) is the meditation exercise of
concentration on breathing in and out consciously. Practitioners consciously observe the breath which passes in and out at the nose-tip, comparing it with a guard who watches over people who go in and out past a security-box. It is suggested that one should not concentrate on how far or deep the breath goes.
In addition, complete concentration is accomplished by breathing in and out, while at the same time focusing ones’ mind according to the principle of Satipatฺtฺhãna (the four Foundations of Mindfulness). There are 16 steps of practicing the four Foundations of Mindfulness.
- First of all, consciously observe the long breaths in and out and feel relaxed.
- Next, consciously observe the short quick breaths in and out like breathing when one is tired.
- Then, consciously focus on the wind that touches the body at the same time as it appears inside the body.
- Release the breath out and hold the breath in gently, slowly and deeply.
- Feel delight and observe it through the feelings of hair-standing on end, bursting into tears or feeling pleasure.
- Consciously observe the feeling of happiness appearing after pleasure decreases. Then, the mind will feel relaxed with happiness.
- Next, consciously observe all kinds of feelings and memories that occurred at that time such as having pains or aches, comfort and memories that flashed in the mind.
- Then, release all feelings and memories, let the mind relax and keep an indifferent feeling.
- Continuously observe the mind which stays indifferent and can refocus if it starts to think of anyone or anything else. Do not force it. Just observe it consciously.
- Next, be joyful and pleased with doing this because it is a good opportunity to practice meditation while other people are entertained by defilements, or they are consciously sleeping.
- Compel the mind to be calm until it concentrates on one particular thing.
- Try to release the mind from previous stages and let it be free.
- Then, consider the changes to the mind and everything that occurs. This is
Aniccaṅ (impermanence).
- Next, loosen the mind from all attachments and release it from fascination. This is Virãga (detachment).
- Then, consider the cessation of Saṅkhãra-khandh and Rũpa-khandha.
The cessation of Khandha (5 aggregates) is to be reborn no more in a cycle of rebirth, so one does not bear any burden of Khandha, It is a great happiness. These are Nirodha (Cessation of suffering) and Nibbãna (the Final Goal of extinction).
- Finally, be pure of mind by getting rid of all attachments and defilements
( Patฺinissagga).
This meditation exercise “Anãpãnasati” (mindfulness on breathing), can elevate ones’ mind for both tranquility meditation and insight meditation and progress to the fourth absorption.
However, it does not progress to Arũpajhãna (the (four) absorption of the Formless Sphere).
(10) “Upsamãnussati” (recollection of peace) is the recall of contemplation on
the virtue of Nibbãna, which is cessation of suffering, by the use of the conscious recall of Khandha ( 5 aggregates) which are the components of the causes of suffering that are defilements which originate in all living beings. The cessation of Mind, Cetasika, and Rũpa or the cessation of Rũpa, Vedanã, Saññã, Saṅkhãra and Viññãna completely cease like a fire that runs out of fuel. As a result, there is no birth in any states of existence.
This meditation exercise “Upsamãnussati” can elevate ones’ mind at a level of Upacãrasamadhi (approaching concentration). It doesn’t progress to any Jhãna (absorption).

Mãtikã 250. “Brahmavihãra Kammatฺtฺhãna” (the four noble sentiments) refers to the meditation exercise which progress in form of Brahma’s behavior that is the consideration on friendliness and kindness without oppression; sharing a comparison for those who are suffering; sharing a altruistic joy for those who are happy and having concentrated mind for wisdom to observe the situation and reaching a decision on what to do toward each situation.
There are 4 types of Brahmavihãra as follows:
(1) “Mettã” (loving – kindness) means concentration on being kind to all living
beings by wishing oneself to be happy first. Then, wish others who are affectionate, heavenly beings, Brahma god, hell animals, etc.
However, the radiation of loving-kindness will be limited if the concentrated mind is not pure enough. It is classified as “Mettã Brahmavihãra”. On the other hand, the radiation of loving-kindness will be unlimited if the concentrated mind is very pure, strongly concentrated and powerful. The unlimited and unbounded radiation of loving – kindness is classified as “Mettã Appamaññã”.
This meditation exercise “Mettã” can be regularly wished for general people and animals. It can elevate ones’ mind and progress to “Tatiya-Jhãna” (the Third Absorption), but it does not progress to a higher Jhãna (absorption).
(2) “Karunฺã” (compassion) means concentration on having sympathy for living beings and caring for general people who are in suffering by wishing to help those who are in devastation and not taking advantage of their trouble or not to be very glad when they are in distress.
This meditation exercise “Karunฺã” is defined that ones have to help those by
themselves such as helping someone who falls down the river, helping someone who gets hurt or helping an injured animals.
However, the power of a wish will be limited if the concentrated mind is not pure enough. It is classified as “Karunฺã Brahmavihãra”. On the other hand, the power of a wish will be unlimited if the concentrated mind is very pure, strongly concentrated and powerful. The unlimited and unbounded state of a wish is classified as “Karunฺã Appamaññã”.
It is suggested to offer help to other people or animals when encountering or
knowing that they are being distressed.
This meditation exercise “Karunฺã” can elevate ones’ mind and progress to
“Tatiya-jhãna” the Third absorption) but it does not progress to a higher Jhãna (absorption).
(3) “Muditã” (sympathetic joy) means concentration on making ones’ mind to be pleased with all living beings when they are happy, honored and promoted to a higher position. Do not suffer from their better situations but show the altruistic joy instead either saying greeting or giving a gift to congratulate on their success.
Showing sympathetic joy will be limited if the concentrated mind is not pure enough. It is classified as “Muditã Brahmavihãra”. On the other hand, showing altruistic joy will be unlimited if concentrated mind is very pure, strongly concentrated and powerful. The unlimited or unbounded states of showing sympathetic joy are classified as “Muditã Appamaññã”.
It is suggested to show sympathetic joy to other people or animals when
encountering or knowing that they are happy, honored or receiving a gift.
This meditation exercise “Muditã” can elevate ones’ mind and progress to
“Tatiya-jhãna” (the Third absorption), but it does not progress to a higher Jhãna (absorption).
(4) “Upekkhã” (wisdom of circumspection) refers to the finest stage of
wisdom which continuously occurs inside the concentration or Mettã (loving–kindness), or Karunฺã (compassion) or Muditã (sympathetic joy) until progressing to Tatiya-Jhãna (the Third Absorption). The finest stage of wisdom, mindfulness and clear consciousness perfectly occur at the same time.
Upekkhã emerges from concentration which is responsible for consideration of the truth about ones’ own Khandha (5 aggregates). Its duty is using observation to consider the five-aggregate-work accurately and viewing what are going on in one’s body and mind, including animals, like a scientist’s wisdom working on experimental germ research or finding the cause of a disease in a laboratory.
This meditation exercise “Uppekkhã” cannot progress directly by itself except when one starts focusing on Mettã, Karunฺã or Muditã until progressing to Tatiya-Jhãna and emerging with wisdom. Then, it develops into Catuttha-jhãna (the Fourth Absorption), but it does not progress to a higher Jhãna (Absorption). However, Uppekkha, (the wisdom) can emerges to the seventh absorption in Kasina meditation, except it does not progress to the eighth absorption, Nirodha (Extinction of Suffering) and Samãpatti (Meditative Attainment).
In the case of Uppekkhã which is outside Jhãna, it is the wisdom to observe the present situation like comparing if with the situation of a goldsmith who melts gold in a crucible. He has to set a fire including blowing it hard or gently, and pick out the impurities that are mixed in the gold. Then, he checks that the gold is suitable for usage.
This is the way that wisdom observes situations and decides what to do: to
blow on the fire, cool the gold or check that it is suitable for usage. This is the wisdom to survey the clearness of the present and outside Jhãna.
The use of wisdom to observe other people or animals (except inside Jhãna), which is not clear and limited because the mind is not pure enough. It is classified as “Uppekkhã Brahmavihãra”.
On the other hand, the mind is very pure, strongly concentrated and peaceful because of the use of wisdom to observe them accurately and it is in an unlimited and unbounded state of mind. It is classified as “Upekkhã Appamaññã”.

Mãtikã 251. A person who progresses to Jhãna until wisdom, mindfulness and clear consciousness perfectly occur together is called “Upekkhã-Cetovimutti”. These will be the results to the state of mind, as follows:
(1) Be able to see impurity within purity.
(1) Be able to see purity within impurity.
(2) Be able to see impurity within impurity mixed with purity.
(3) Be able to see purity within purity mixed with impurity.
(4) Be able to see without both impurity and purity.

Mãtikã 252. “Arũpa Kammatฺtฺhãna” (Immaterial meditation) means the meditation exercise that focuses on Arũpadhamma (immateriality). It is classified as tranquility meditation. It is suggested to practice continuously from 9 types of tranquility meditation which are the Earth Kasinฺa, the Water Kasinฺa, the Fire Kasinฺa, the Wind Kasinฺa, the Green Kasinฺa, the Red Kasinฺa, the Yellow Kasinฺa, the white Kasinฺa and the Light Kasinฺa (except the Space Kasinฺa). One practices each type of Kasinฺa until one progresses to the Fourth Absorption. Then, one changes from focusing on a Kasinฺa sign into space which is the first stage of immaterial Jhãna. After that, progress to a higher Jhãna. This meditation exercise “Arũpa Kammatฺtฺhãna”, or immaterial Jhãna, cannot progress directly.

Mãtikã 253. There are 4 types of Arũpa Kammatฺtฺhãna (Immaterial meditation), as
follows:
(1) “Ãkãsãnañcãyatana” (Sphere of Infinity of Space) or the Fifth Absorption is the meditation that focuses on space covering any type of a Kasinฺa sign except “Ãkãsa” (the Space Kasinฺa). While the concentrated mind is progressing to a level of the fourth absorption, one changes from focusing on a Kasinฺa sign to space. Repeat “Ananto Ãkãso” or “endless unbounded space” while focusing on the space continuously. This state of mind is called leaving Kasinฺa and focusing on space. It is classified as the first Jhãna of the immaterial Sphere, or the Fifth Absorption, which is counted from Jhãna of the Fine-Material Sphere (the fourth absorption).
(2) “Viññãnฺañcãyatana” (Sphere of infinity of consciousness), or the Sixth
Absorption, is the meditation that focuses on ones’ mind perception known as soul, While the concentrated mind is progressing to the Fifth Absorption, which focuses on space covering a Kasinฺa sign, make one’s mind perceive on this and repeat “Anantaṅ
Viññãnฺaṅ” or “endless consciousness” continuously.
Practitioners must practice this immaterial meditation after focusing on space. They cannot progress to it directly. It is classified as the second Jhãna of the Immaterial Sphere or the Sixth Absorption, which is counted from Jhãna of the Fine Material Sphere (the Fifth Absorption).
(3) “Ãkiñcaññãyatana” (Sphere of nothingness), or the Seventh Absorption, is
the meditation in the stage of trying to cease one’s mind or trying to cease one’s thoughts and mind perceptions, and one repeats “Natฺtฺhi Kiñci” or “no perception” continuously.
Practitioners must practice this immaterial meditation which progresses to Viññãnฺañcãyatana and continues to progress to the sphere of nothingness, which is classified as the third Jhãna of the Immaterial Sphere or the Seventh Absorption, which is counted from Jhãna of the Fine-Material Sphere (the Sixth Absorption). It does not progress directly.
In case of Anãgãmĩ (Non-Returner) or Arahant (the Holy one), one who attains the third Jhãna of the Immaterial Sphere or the Seventh Absorption can continue progressing to “Nirodha Samãpatti” (Extinction of Suffering Attainment) by setting the period of time before entering the Eighth Absorption called “Abhisaṅkhãra” (volitional formation).
(4) “Nevasaññãnãsaññãyatana” (Sphere of neither perception nor non-
perception or the Eighth Absorption) is the meditation in the stage of mind perception cessation. The mind does not perceive any information, but there is only fine perception which cannot be responsible for thinking anything.
It is suggested to set the period of time at the final stage of “Akiñcaññãyatana”, or the third Jhãna of the Immaterial Sphere or the Seventh Absorption, before entering the Eighth Absorption or “Nevasaññãnãsaññãyatana”.
After setting the period of time, repeat “Santaṅ Panฺĩtaṅ” or “Fine calm condition” continuously until entering the Eighth Absorption without praying. At this stage, the mind almost ceases.
Practitioners must practice this immaterial meditation continuously from Ãkiñcaññãyatana (Sphere of nothingness) because it can not progress directly. It is classified as the fourth Jhãna of the immaterial Sphere or the Eighth Absorption which is counted from the Jhãna of the Fine-Material Sphere.
The 4 types of Arũpa Kammatฺtฺhãna (immaterial meditation) which are the foundations of each types – the low level is the base Ãkãsãnañcãyatana (Sphere of Infinity of Space) is the base of Viññãnฺañcãyatana (Sphere of Infinity of Consciousness), Ãkiñcaññãyatana (Sphere of Nothingness) and Nevasaññãnãsaññãyatana (Spere of neither perception nor non-perception), respectively. Then, the last one is the base of Nirodha Samãpatti(Extinction of Suffering Attainment).
However, these 4 types of Arũpa Kammatฺtฺhan are suitable for every intrinsic nature of a person, but one has to practice continuously from Rũpa Jhãna (Jhãna of the Fine-Material Sphere) from the Fourth Absorption.

Mãtikã 254. “Ãhãrepatikũlasaññã” (perception of the loathsomeness of food) means the meditation exercise where one considers the loathsomeness of the food one consumes. It is a kind of tranquility meditation where the practitioners have natural conditions for concentration, but there are no true signs.
This method of meditation is to consider the loathsomeness and repugnance of food before consuming it. Although it is clean and hygienic, practitioners must consider the loathsomeness of food. For example, consider food cooked from unhygienic ingredients. After consuming it, it is digested in the stomach and turns into disgust inside the body. Then, the excretions become unpleasant and smell bad.
In addition, food kept for a long time will spoil. When they realize the reality of this, they will consume food just for survival. They do not grasp anything and understand that all kinds of animals cannot live without food.
This meditation exercise “Ãhãrepatฺikulasaññã” can elevate one’s mind at a level of Upacãrasamãdhi (approaching concentration). It does not progress to any Jhãna (absorption).

Mãtikã 255. “Catudhãtuvavatthãna” (analysis of the four elements means the meditation exercise which focus on one’s four elements analysis. It is a kind of tranquility meditation where the practitioner has a natural condition as concentration, but there is no true sign.
This method of meditation is to analyze the four elements: Patฺhavĩ-dhãtu
(body substance), Ãpo-dhãtu (the cohesive force that combines the body substance), Vãyo-dhãtu (air or breath) and Tejo-dhãtu (body temperature). Practitioners understand the natural condition where all living beings, animals, plants, computers, cars and planes consist of these 4 elements. They are not immortal at all.
This meditation exercise “Catudhãtuvavatthãna” can elevate one’s mind at the level of Upacarasamadhi (approaching concentration). It does not progress to any Jhãna (absorption).

Mãtikã 256. “Vipassanã–Kammatฺtฺhãna” (Insight meditation) means the doctrines or the truth which is considered by intellectuals for absolute understanding. It appears when practicing meditation and progresses to various levels of absorption starting with absorption. Wisdom emerges to consider the truth of oneself when the mind is pure without obstacles. While progressing to the first absorption, practitioners make known that the body consists of 5 components called “Khandha” which deal with Ãyatana (sense-spheres),Dhãtu (elements), Indriya (faculties), Ariyasacca (the Noble Truth) and Paฺticcasamuppãda (the Chain of Causation).
The wisdom of truth appears when progressing to the absorption called Bhãvanãmaya-paññã (wisdom resulting from mental development) which refers to emerging-wisdom by oneself when the mind is pure without Nivaranฺa (obstacles), or Kilesa (defilements) or Upakkilesa (mental defilements). It is manifested by ones’ own intellect, but it is not heard or known by studying.
This wisdom “Bhãvanãmaya-paññã” occurs in the absorption like Upekkhã (wisdom of circumspection).

Mãtikã 257. “Vipassanã–Kammatฺtฺhãna” (Insight meditation) is the result which occurs when the mind is calm and pure without the obstacles, defilements or mental defilements when progressing in tranquility meditation.

Mãtikã 258. It is forbidden to practice the insight meditation directly because it is impossible. Due to impure mind, the truth cannot be found by ones’ own intellect as in the Buddhavacana (the words or teaching of the Lord Buddha), as follows:

“All monks, although a person with good eye-sight is standing on the blank of a muddy brook, he cannot see any pebbles or animals such as snails, clams and a school of fish swimming in that brook when compared with those monks whose minds are not pure – dim with craving and defilements. It is impossible to know one’s own and other’s benefits and they cannot make one know of Ñãnadassana or Vipassanãñãnฺa (a vision of truth) because of an impure mind.”
“All monks, on the other hand, a person with good eye-sight is standing on the blank of a clear and clean brook, he can see pebbles or animals such as snails, clams and a school of fish swimming in that brook when compared with those monks whose minds are pure without craving and defilements. It is possible to know one’s own and other’s benefits and they can make one know of Ñãnadassana or Vipassanãñãnฺa (a vision of truth) because of a pure mind.”

Mãtikã 259. “Vipassanã-Kammatฺtฺhãna” (Insight meditation) is the doctrine or the truth where one must use internal wisdom for considering the truth according to one’s own situation. The doctrines are called “Vippassanãbhumi” - the six doctrines classify in detail seventy-three type: Pañcakkandha (the Five Aggregates), Ãyatana (the Twelve Sense–Spheres), Dhãtu (the Eighteen Elements), Indriya (the Twenty Two Faculties), Ariyasacca (the Four Noble Truth) and Patฺiccasamuppãda(the Twelve Chains of Causation).

Mãtikã 260. “Khandha” means the components of life making up each human, animal, heavenly being or Brahma god depending on the combination of the Five Aggregates: “Rũpa-Khandha” (body) refers to all bodies with 32 organs; “Vedanã-Khandha” (feeling) refers to feelings of happiness, suffering or unhappiness, comfort; “Saññã-Khandha” (perception) refers to mental memory; Saṅkhãra-Khandha (mental formation) refers to thought or potential, and Viññãnฺa-Khandha refers to conscious mind perception.

Mãtikã 261. Human beings, animals, heavenly beings, Brahma gods and hell animals are born in different Bhava (states of existence) because of the combination of the Five Aggregates, and Saṅkhãra-Khandha (merit, demerit and absorption) are the factors for birth in different states of existence.

Mãtikã 262. Those who practice tranquility meditation until the mind is pure and progress to absorption, their wisdom called Vipassanãñãnฺa (insight wisdom), Bhãvanãmaya-paññã (wisdom resulting from mental development) or Upekkhã-paññã (wisdom resulting from fine observation) emerges to understand Pañcakkhanda (the Five Aggregates) accurately, and it can analyze each khandha until it understands Samutฺtฺhãna (origination) which can cease, or see how each Khandha works.
If the wisdom from Vipassanãñãnฺa (insight wisdom) or Bhãvanãmaya-paññã (wisdom resulting from mental development) or Upekkhã-paññã (wisdom resulting from fine observation) emerges in the first, second, third and the fourth absorption, the practitioners can analyze all five aggregates.
If the wisdom emerges in the fifth, sixth and the seventh absorption, they can analyze only four aggregates: Vedanã-Khandha (feeling), Saññã-Khandha (perception), Saṅkhãra-Khandha (mental formation) and Viññanฺa-Khandha; except Rũpa-Khandha (body).
When practitioners progress to the eighth absorption, the mind almost ceases and Cetasika (mind perception) also ceases, so wisdom ceases – no consideration and progress to Nirodha Samãpatti (Extinction of Suffering Attainment). Finally, there is no consideration of truth at this stage even in Vipassanã-Kammatฺtฺhãna (Insight meditation).

Mãtikã 263. When practicing until wisdom (Vipassanãñãnฺa (insight wisdom)) or Bhãvanãmaya-paññã (wisdom resulting from mental development) or Upekkhã-paññã (wisdom resulting from fine observation) emerges to make one know that human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods are only named. The fact is that they all are born from a combination of each Khandha in a period of time. They are not human beings, animals, heavenly beings, and Brahma gods with “Attã” or “Ãtman” (immortal self).

Mãtikã 264. “Ãyatana” (the Twelve Spheres or Sense-Spheres) means the part of nerves which link and react with each other in order to perceive through the five aggregates.
There are 12 sense spheres: 6 internal sense-fields (or sense-organs) and 6 external sense-fields (or sense-objects and mind objects).
The six internal sense-fields of the five aggregates are, as follows:
“Cakkhavãyatana” is the eye nerve for seeing images.
“Sotãyatana is the ear nerve for hearing.
“Ghãnãyatana” is the nose nerve for smelling.
“Jivhãyatana” is the tongue nerve for to tasting.
“Kãyãtana” is the body nerve for touching cold, hot, soft and hard.
“Manãyatana” is the mind nerve for perceiving or analyzing.
The six external sense-fields are as follows:
“Rupãyatana” are the visible objects which attract the eye nerve.
“Saddãyatana” are the sounds which are detected by the ear nerve.
“Gandhãyatana” are the odors which are smelled by the nose nerve.
“Rasãyatana” are the flavors which are tasted by the tongue nerve.
“Photฺtฺabbãyatana” are the tangible objects which are touched by the body nerve.
“Dhammãyatana” are the mind – objects which attract the mind.
Human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods perceive and communicate depending on Ãyatana (the Twelve Spheres) which react with each other. If any nerve is deficient, part of that perception will be crippled. It is not Attã or Ãtman (the immortal self) or self-consciousness which is responsible for perception, communication or making orders.
Those who practice meditation until wisdom emerges in concentration can consider that human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods’ perceptions originate from the twelve spheres.
Ãyatana (the Twelve Spheres) is the doctrine or truth which can be individually seen and made known by oneself when practicing insight meditation until the mind is completely concentrated at the level of Ññanฺa-Vipassanãñãnฺa (insight wisdom), or Bhãvanãmaya-paññã (wisdom resulting from mental development) or Upekkhã-paññã (wisdom resulting from fine observation).

Mãtikã 265. “Dhãtu” (elements) means a natural condition that carries its own characteristic mark. It is the truth that a practitioner whose mind is pure until wisdom emerges in concentration and considers the state of elements which link each other and are perceived by human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods comparing with how an engine or a computer works.
There are 18 elements, which consist of the elements dealing with 6 internal sense-fields and 6 external sense-fields, plus six elements, which appear because of the results of the internal sense-fields and external sense-fields which react to each other.
The elements dealing with 6 internal sense-fields are, as follows:
“Cakku-dhãtu” (eye element) is the eye nerve which carries its own character of see.
“Sota-dhãtu” (ear element) is the ear nerve which carries its own character of hear.
“Ghãna-dhãtu” (nose element) is the nose nerve which carries its own character of smell.
“Jivhã-dhãtu” (body element) is the tongue nerve which carries its own character of taste.
“Kãya-dhãtu” (body element) is the body nerve which carries its own character of touch.
“Mano-dhãtu” (mind element) is the mind which carries its own character of perception.
The elements dealing with the 6 external sense-fields are as follows:
“Rũpa-dhãtu” (visible-data element) is the image which carries its own character attached by the eye nerve.
“Sadda-dhãtu” (sound element) is the sound which carries its own character detected by the ear nerve.
“Gandha-dhãtu” (Odor element) is the odor which carries its own character smelled by the nose nerve.
“Rasa-dhãtu” (flavor element) is the food flavor which carries its own character tasted by the tongue nerve.
“Photฺtฺhabba-dhãtu” (tangible-data element) is something that can be perceived by touch.
“Dhamma-dhãtu” (mental-data elements) are the mind-objects which carry their own character to attract the mind.
The six elements which appear because of the internal sense-fields and external sense-fields which react to each other are, as follows:
“Cakkhu-viññãnฺa-dhãtu” (eye-consciousness element) is the sight where the eye nerve links to visible objects and perceives the images.
“Sota-viññãnฺa-dhãtu” (ear-consciousness element) is the audible where the ear nerve links to the sound and can be heard.
“Ghãna-viññãnฺa-dhãtu” (nose-consciousness element) is the smell where the nose nerve links to the smell and can be smelled.
“Jivhã-viññãnฺa-dhãtu” (tongue-consciousness element) is the flavor where the tongue nerve links to the taste.
“Kãya-viññãnฺa-dhãtu” (body-consciousness element) is the sense of touch where the body nerve links to tangible objects.
“Mano-viññãnฺa-dhãtu” (mind-consciousness element) is the mind’s perception where the mind nerve links to moods.
When the five aggregates combine together to become human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods, they can perceive and communicate because of the 18 elements which react to each other. It is not created by god, and it is not Attã or Ấtman (immortal self).
Those who practice meditation until wisdom emerges in concentration can consider that a human being’s, animal’s, heavenly being’s or Brahma god’s perception originates from the 18 elements which react to each other.
Dhãtu (the 18 elements) is the doctrine or truth which can be individually seen and made known by oneself when practicing insight meditation until the mind is completely concentrated at a level of Ññanฺa – Vipassanãñãnฺa (insight wisdom), or Bhãvanãmaya-paññã (wisdom resulting from mental development) or Upekkha-paññã (wisdom of circumspection – wisdom resulting from fine observation).

Mãtikã 266. “Indriya” (faculties) means the states of the powers of the body or mind. They are the main characteristics of human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods and the main responsibilities are the perception of existence and formation. Each Indriya (faculty) has its duty to be in charge of a power. For example, Cakkhundriya (eye-faculty) is responsible for sight. If one loses one’s eye, one will lose one’s eyesight. No other faculties can take over.
Human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods have their own faculties which can take over.
There are 22 faculties as follows:
“Cakkhundriya” (eye-faculty) is mainly responsible for vision.
“Sotindriya” (ear-faculty) is mainly responsible for hearing.
“Ghãnindriya” (nose-faculty) is mainly responsible for smelling.
“Jivhindriya” (Tongue-faculty) is mainly responsible for taste.
“Kãyindriya” (body-faculty) is mainly responsible for touch.
“Manindriya” (mind-faculty) is mainly responsible for thought.
“Itthindriya” (femininity faculty) is mainly responsible for female appearance.
“Purisindriya” (masculinity faculty) is mainly responsible for male appearance.
“Jivitindriya” (life faculty) is mainly responsible for human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods’ existence.
“Sukhindriya” (bodily-pleasure faculty) is mainly responsible for physical happiness.
“Dukkhindriya” (bodily-pain faculty) is mainly responsible for physical suffering.
“Somanassindriya” (joy faculty) is mainly responsible for mental joyfulness.
“Domanassindriya” (grief faculty) is mainly responsible for mental grief.
“Uppekhindriya” (fine observation faculty) is mainly responsible for close and careful observation.
“Saddhindriya” (faith faculty) is mainly responsible for acceptance and reliability.
“Viriyindriya” (energy faculty) is mainly responsible for perseverance to succeed.
“Satindriya” (mindfulness faculty) is mainly responsible for carefulness.
“Samãdhindriya”(concentration) is mainly responsible for mind purity.
“Paññindriya” (wisdom faculty) is mainly responsible for insight.
“Anaññataññassãmĩtindriya” is the powered mind that is mainly responsible for the effort to achieve Dhamma.
“Aññindriya” (perfect-knowledge faculty) is a noble one’s wisdom to know the truth of Dhamma achievement.
“Aññãtãvindriya” (perfect-knower faculty) is an Arahant’s wisdom to achieve the highest Dhamma.
If any human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods’ faculties are defective, the main responsibility of that faculty will be deficient. Each human being, animal, heavenly being or Brahma god has one’s own faculty according to the number and quality of them. Those who have more faculties will get more benefits than those who have less. Those who have less or defective faculties will get benefits slowly and incompletely.
Those who practice meditation until wisdom emerges in completed concentration called Vipassanãñanฺa (insight wisdom), Bhãvanãmaya-pañña (wisdom resulting from mental development) or Upekkhã-paññã (wisdom of circumspection – wisdom resulting from fine observation) can consider and understand the 22 faculties.

Mãtikã 267. “Ariyasacca” (The Four Noble Truths) are the excellent truths or the highest truths which show the principal truth of human beings, animals, heavenly beings or Brahma gods who are born in all states of existence.
The Four Noble Truths are as follows:
(1) “Dukkha” (suffering) is a human being, animal, heavenly being or Brahma god’s life which consists of the five aggregates, and it is in the state of burden of seeking food for survival.
The body”Rũpa-Khanda” depends on the physical nutriment called
“Kavalฺinkãrãhãra”. The feeling “Vedanã-Khanda” depends on the nutriment consisting of contact called “Phassãhãra”. The memory “Saññã-Khandha” depends on the nutriment consisting of mental volition called “Manosañcetanãhãra”. The idea or mental formation also depends on the nutriment consisting of mental volition called “Manosañcetanãhãra”
and mind perception depends on the nutriment consisting of consciousness called
“Viññãnฺahãra”.
If any Khandha or aggregates lacks any nutriment, that aggregate will be deficient. Therefore, it is a human being’s, animal’, heavenly being’s and Brahma god’s burden of regularly seeking nutriment for each aggregate. This burden continuously exists throughout their life as suffering. Those who don’t know this fact will keep this burden and continuously suffer forever. On the other hand, those who can give it up it will be very happy.
(2) “Samudaya” (the cause of suffering) are the defilements which originate in human beings, animals, heavenly beings and Brahma gods such as Tanฺha which means the cravings of human beings, animals, heavenly beings and Brahma gods. There are 3 kinds of cravings: “Kãma-tanฺhã” (craving for sensual pleasure) is the requirement for endless sexual desire; “Bhava-tanฺhã” (craving for the existence) is the requirement to be reborn in the cycle of rebirth forever, and “Vibhava-tanฺhã” (craving for non-existence) is the distress and oppression from bearing suffering causing one to commit suicide.
These cravings are parts of the origination of human beings, animals, heavenly beings and Brahma gods. No gods create them.
(3) “Nirodha” (the cessation of suffering) are the defilements cessation which originate in human beings, animals, heavenly beings and Brahma gods such as cessation of craving for sensual pleasure, cessation of craving for existence and cessation for craving for non-existence.
Defilement cessation results in the cessation of the five aggregates (Khanda) which are the components of life arising lastly in the cycle of rebirth. It is the cessation of suffering which is the great permanent happiness.
When cravings are eliminated, the origination of living beings is demolished. One who can eliminate all defilements is call an Arahant (the Holy one).The Holy one’s defilement cessation is called Nibbãna or Parinibbãna which means complete extinction of all passions and complete release from the cycle of rebirth.
(4) “Magga” (the path leading to the cessation of suffering) is the principle or path of practice to eliminate defilements which originate in living beings (Samudaya) called Majihimãpatฺipadã (the Middle Path) or Ariyamagga(Noble Eightfold Path) which are the following:
“Sammãditฺtฺhi” (Right Understanding) – right understanding of life.
“Sammãsaṅkappa” (Right Thought) – thought of seeking the way to release oneself from sensual pleasure regularly.
“Sammãvãcã” (Right Speech) – good use of speech.
“Sammãkammanta” (Right Action) – good behavior of action.
“Sammã-ãjĩva” (Right Livelihood) – having a pure occupation.
“Sammãvãyãma” (Right effort) – effort to perform meritorious actions.
“Sammãsati” (Right Mindfulness) – having self-consciousness of one’s self without carelessness.
“Sammãsamãdhi” (Right concentration) – practice meditation until craving is destroyed completely.
The Four Noble Truths are the principles of Dhammas in practicing insight meditation. When the mind completely concentrates until it is pure and progresses to absorption at the level of Vipassanãñãnฺa (insight wisdom), Bhãvanãmaya-pañña (wisdom resulting from mental development) or Upekkhã-pañña (wisdom of circumspection – wisdom resulting from fine observation) then, truth is considered and understood clearly by oneself.

Mãtikã 268. “Patฺiccasamuppãda” (the chain of Causation) means a human being’s, animal’s, heavenly being’s and Brahma god’s dependent origination for birth. Even materials, abstract materials, living and non-living things arise by depending on factors of each other supporting each other. If the supported factors can cease, they also cease without immortality or creators.
“Patฺiccasamuppãda” is the general principle which covers all living beings and things such as human beings, animals, heavenly beings and Brahma gods, cars, engines, computers, etc. They originate by conditioned arising, as follows:
(1) Because of Avija (Ignorance arises Saṅkharã) – lack of knowledge in making sin, merit and progress in concentration.
(2) Because of incomplete sin, merit and concentration which results the rise of consciousness (Viññãnฺa).
(3) Because of mind (consciousness brings mind and matter).
(4) Because of six sense-bases (mind and matter bring the six sense-bases).
(5) Because of contact (six sense-bases bring contact).
(6) Because of feelings (contact brings feelings).
(7) Because of cravings (feelings brings cravings).
(8) Because of clinging (craving brings clinging).
(9) Because of becoming (clinging brings becoming).
- clinging causes becoming in the state of existence.
(10) Because of birth (becoming brings birth).
(11) Because of decay and death (birth brings decay and birth).
(12) Decay and birth brings sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.
Thus, all arisings depend on each other and cause suffering like the chain of causation.

Mãtikã 269. A human being’s, animal’s, heavenly being’s and Brahma god’s birth depend on Patฺiccasamuppãda which link together like a chain. On the other hand, those who understand this causation, follow the middle path and practice meditation until progressing in Jhãna (absorption) brings wisdom called Vipassanãñãnฺa (insight wisdom), or Bhãvanãmaya-pañña (wisdom resulting from mental development), or Upekkhã-pañña (wisdom of circumspection – wisdom resulting from fine observation) which emerges to make one know of the truths and cease the Chain of Causation so one can attain Nibbãna. They no longer bring about a state of existence because of the cessation of Patฺiccasamuppãda, as follows:
(1) Because of the knowledge not to make merit and sins to get results anymore.
(2) No merit and sins for Karma-formation.
(3) No mind for mind and matter formation (Cetasika and Rũpa cease).
(4) No six sense-bases (mind and matter cease).
(5) No contact for external sense-fields (six sense-bases cease).
(6) No feelings because of no contact.
(7) No sensual desire because of no feelings.
(8) No clinging because of no cravings.
(9) No state of existence to be reborn because of no clinging.
(10) No birth because of no state of existence.
(11) No decay and death because of no birth.
(12) No sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair because of no decay and
death.
A living being’s 5 aggregates which cause suffering will cease with the cessation of the Chain of Causation.
The truth of Patฺiccasamuppãda is the principle Dhamma in practicing insight meditation. When the mind completely concentrates, until it is pure and progresses to absorption at the level of Vipassanãñãnฺa (insight wisdom), or Bhãvanãmaya-pañña (wisdom resulting from mental development) or Upekkhã-pañña (wisdom of circumspection – wisdom resulting from fine observation) then, the truth is considered and understood clearly by oneself.

Mãtikã 270. “Mahãsatipatฺtฺhãna” (The great foundations of mindfulness) refers to the main principle base of mindfulness using contemplation of oneself, other persons and animals. There are 4 main principles as follows:
(1) “Kãyãnupassanãsatipatฺtฺhãna” (Contemplation of the body) refers to the mindfulness of oneself and other persons in different actions. It is divided into 6 parts:
- Mindfulness of breathing in and out (“Anãpãnapabba”).
-Mindfulness of deportment such as walking, running, sitting, sleeping etc. (“Iriyãpathapabba”).
- Mindfulness of body movements in the way of walking forward or backwards stretching, and bending arms, eating, chewing, drinking, etc. (“Sampajaññapabba”).
- Mindfulness of the loathsomeness of oneself such as the hair, nails, flesh, skin, urine (“Patฺikulamanasikãrapabba”).
- Mindfulness of consideration for living being’s elements: the earth-element, water-element, fire element, air-element, space-element and consciousness element (“Dhãtupabba”).
- Mindfulness of a dead body in various states such as a corpse that is about to turn into dull green, a corpse that is about to swell, have lymph coming out of the body with bad smells etc. (“Navasĩvathikãpabba”).
(2) “Vedanãnupassanasatipatฺtฺhana” (Contemplation of feeling) refers to the mindfulness of oneself and other persons in different emotions, as follows:
- Mindfulness of one’s and others’ happiness.
- Mindfulness of one’s and others’ suffering.
- Mindfulness of one’s and others’ indifference.
- Mindfulness of one’s and others’ happiness with Amisa (materiality) that
is being happy because of listening to music, eating delicious food, a gratifying sense of sexual desire.
- Mindfulness of the peaceful mind which is happiness in concentration. It is the happiness in Jhãna (absorption) without emotion.
- Mindfulness of suffering with Amisa (materiality) that is suffering caused by being blamed; suffering caused by injury, sickness and loss of one’s beloved.
- Mindfulness of the truths of life which includes suffering according to the Four Noble Truths.
- Mindfulness of neither suffering nor happiness with Amisa (materiality) that is indifference to hearing, taste etc. It is perception without emotion.
- Mindfulness of neither suffering nor happiness during the concentration. It is peacefulness with pure mind.
(3) “Cittãnupassanãsatipatฺtฺhãna” (Contemplation of mind) refers to mindfulness of one’s and others’ thoughts with close and clear observations, as follows:
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while having lustful thoughts and sexual desire.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind without lust and sexual desire or the mind with temporary calm from lust.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind that is about to feel hatred; while feeling hatred and perceiving this unusual mind.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind without hatred, or it calms down and the mind is pure.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while having delusions, misunderstanding and ignorance leading to errors.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind without delusion, misunderstanding and ignorance leading to errors.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while being depressed, discouraged and exhausted.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while being jumbled, annoyed and confused.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while concentrating on Jhãna (absorption).
It is a powerful mind that can spread widely without limitation. It is a pure mind.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while concentrating on Jhãna (absorption)
It is less powerful and widely spread in a limited area.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while there is another mind that is more powerful and causes nervousness.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while there is no other mind that is more powerful and causes encouragement.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while it is stable and calm in concentration with clear consciousness. It is a complete mind in Jhãna considering mind’s emotions with close and careful observation.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while it is not calm and stable, without concentration and clear consciousness. It is incomplete observation.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while it is free from defilements. It is a released mind.
- Mindfulness of one’s mind while it is not free from defilements and they are stuck in mind.
(4) “Dhammãnupassanãsatipatฺtฺhãna” (Contemplation of mind-objects) refers to mindfulness of natural conditions arising in one’s mind which can be changed depending on the following:
- Mindfulness of Nĩvaranฺa (five obstacles) arising in one’s mind such as sensual desire, ill-will, sloth and torpor, distraction and doubt leading to indecision. These obstacles are called “Nĩvaranฺapabba”.
- Mindfulness of Khandha (five aggregates) that is observation of one’s body, feelings, perception, mental formation and consciousness called
“Khandhapabba”.
- Mindfulness of Ãyatana (sense – Spheres) that is observation of one’s internal sense-organs or nerves of perception through contact such as the eyes perceiving images, the ears perceiving hearing, the nose perceiving smells, the tongue perceiving taste, the body perceiving touch, and mind perception called “Ãyatanapabba”.
- Mindfulness of the doctrines that make one attain enlightenment such as consideration of mindfulness, truth investigation, effort, zest, calmness, concentration and consideration of the five aggregates with close and careful observation while progressing to advance absorption. These are called “Bojjhangapabba”.
- Mindfulness of the Four Noble Truths, which are excellence truths, that are Dukkha (suffering) - the living beings’ five aggregates arising in the cycle of rebirth; Samudaya (the cause of suffering)-the defilements which originate all living beings to be born in various states of existence (ignorance, craving and clinging that is similar to the adhesive causing living beings to be reborn again); Nirodha (the cessation of suffering) -Nibbãna that is the cessation of arising in the states of existence and Magga (the path leading to the cessation of suffering)- the practice of Nirodha. These are called “Saccapabba”.
In addition, those who practice “Mahãsatipatฺtฺãna” (the great foundations of mindfulness) use contemplation of self, other persons and animals according to the previous details of the 4 main principles. They also contemplate on their own, at the same time, considering thoughtfully about others both arising and ceasing.

Mãtikã 271. Those who practice “Mahãsatipatฺtฺãna” (the great foundations of mindfulness) using contemplation of the 4 main principles continuously from 7 days to 7 years will become a Holy One in this present state of existence.
If one cannot achieve becoming a Holy One, one will become a Never-Returner. After death, one will be reborn in the Pure Abodes of the Brahma world. At the end of a life-span in the Brahma world, they will be never be reborn to be a living being in any state of existence anymore. It means that they have attained Nibbãna and the great happiness forever.

Mãtikã 272. “Samathayãnika” (the quiet vehicle) refers to an Arahant (the Holy One) who practices tranquility meditation and consequently the mind progresses to the highest Jhãna (absorption) and leads to insight wisdom with pure mind.
“Samathayãnika” means a person who achieves Dhamma by tranquility meditation as a vehicle called “Ubhatobhãgavimutti” which is the release from both mind (Cetovimutti) and wisdom (Paññãvimutti).
The Arahant (the Holy One) who is Samathayãnika has 3 characteristics: Tevijjo, Chalฺabhiñño and Patฺisambhidappatto.

Mãtikã 273. “Tevijjo” refers to one who possesses the Threefold Knowledge or Abbiññã (super knowledge), as follows:
(1) “Pubbenivãsãnussatiñãnฺa” (remembrance of former existences) is a
Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and progresses in Jhãna until he can remember his former states of existences and makes known to himself what he was or where he was born.
(2) “Dibbacaksuñãnฺa” (divine sight) is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma
and gains the knowledge of Cuti (decease) and rebirth of beings. He can also see all living beings swimming around the changing cycle (knows where dead beings will be born).
(3) “Ãsavakkhayañãnฺa” (knowledge of the destruction of defilements
and craving) is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and makes known of his own and other persons’ defilement destruction such as knowing that which defilements are destroyed and which ones remain and has insight that there is greediness, anger, and misguideness in one’s mind.

Mãtikã 274. “Chalฺabhiñño” refers to one who possesses the Six fold
super knowledge, as follows:
(1) “Iddhividhi” is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and has magical
powers according to the meditation exercises that he practices.
(2) “Dibbasota” is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and has divine
hearing, that is, he can hear divine sounds or hear the animals’ from a long distance.
(3) “Cetopariyañãnฺa” is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and can
penetrate other person’s mind or thoughts.
(4) “Pubbenivãsãnussatiñãnฺa” is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and
can remember his former states of existence.
(5) “Dibbacakkhu” is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and has divine sight.
(6) “Ãsavakkhayañãnฺa” is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and makes
known of his own and other person’s defilement destruction.

Mãtikã 275. “Patฺisambhidappatto” refers to Bhikkhu who attains analytic insights, as follows:
(1) “Attha-patฺisambhidã” (discrimination of meanings) is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and can discriminate and explain the meanings of doctrines both briefly and in detail, accurately with high speed. Even when he encounters an event, he can define the result immediately.
(2) “Dhamma-patฺisambhidã” (analytic insight of origin) is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and can explain the principles of doctrine with high speed. Even when he encounters a result, he can draw back to find the cause correctly.
(3) “Nirutti-patฺisambhidã” (discrimination of language) is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and has wisdom of language usage, vocabulary and is an excellent linguist. He can also make a clear speech to audiences. As a result, they can understand clearly.
(4) “Patฺibhãnฺa-patฺisambhidã” (discrimination of sagacity) is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and has a ready wit and intelligence to clarify principle and reasons promptly.

Mãtikã 276. Vipassanãyãnika (the insight-vehicle) refers to an Arahant whose
vehicle is pure insight without Jhãna(absorption) and Abhiññã called Sukkhavipassako (the dry-visioned).

doctrine with high speed. Even when he encounters a result, he can draw back to find the cause correctly.
(3) “Nirutti-patฺisambhidã” (discrimination of language) is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and has wisdom of language usage, vocabulary and is an excellent linguist. He can also make a clear speech to audiences. As a result, they can understand clearly.
(4) “Patฺibhãnฺa-patฺisambhidã” (discrimination of sagacity) is a Bhikkhu who achieves Dhamma and has a ready wit and intelligence to clarify principle and reasons promptly.

Mãtikã 276. Vipassanãyãnika (the insight-vehicle) refers to an Arahant whose vehicle is pure insight without Jhãna(absorption) and Abhiññã called Sukkhavipassako (the dry-visioned).

 
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